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psych 307


undefined, object
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what is culture?

2) any kind of inoformation that is acquired form outher members of one speicies through social leanring that is capable of affecting a indivudals behvoir

3) descriptive definations
refers to all social activites in the broadest sense such as language marrage and proerpty system.

4) historical defintions
refer to a groups social heratige or tadiotns
emaphsis - making refersnce ot culture beign passsed down form generation to generation

5) normative def
refer to rules that govern behvoir, pattersn for liviingl... the indiviudals role in unending lkiedsaope of life siations of ever kind of rules and models for attidtue and coduct in them

6) psychological defintions
refer to the learning processes developmental pattners and problem solving group.

7) structuraul deifntions
inter realted organizational elements of a group, a culture consists of inventions or cultural traits integrated into a system
8) non genetic defintions
refer to shared charactersitics that are not genetic in thier orgiins.
9) functional nationality defintion
fluid nature cross boarder cultures, speical groups french aborginals

what is cultural psychology
is concerned with identifyign the links between culture and psychological processes of peopel exposed to that culture

doest not adopt a unversalists position but mainatians a relativsit view, beleive that the mind and culture are inextricably intertwined. one shapes the outher and vice vesera.
vs general psychology view
cpu in differant contexts view

berrry models


ecological contests
sociopoltical context
berrys model to what is culuture
ecologogical context: soil conditons in which a socieity lives

socio poltical
relative power, history wealth resource distirbution in realtion to its neibors

processes that must be transmitted to the indiviudal

ecological influences
features of the enviorment that limit or enable a given society to thrive

genetic transmission
resistane form malaria

cultural transmission
develope a heirachal leader convesion to an ecolgoical context that free people form having a farm food.

specific to societies that learn to blend with eachouther chagn ein realtion to one and expsoed to ideas realted to culture.
chines vernacular from mongols

multi cultural psychology
invovles the study of inviduals living n sociites in which groups co exits no cultural psych
ethnic minority psychology
invovles the study of individual swho form ethnic minority of gorups within a soceity

not cultuarl psychology

transcultural psychatiriy
abnormal psych across differant groups.
what methods do cultural psychologists use.
decutive - theory - hypothesis , research observation
inductive research generates new theories
research observations hypothesis theory

1) data or narrative qualtiative research

what reserach methods do cultural psycholgists use
. Deductive research tests pre-existing theories
o TheoryHypothesesresearchObservations
⬢ 2. Inductive research generates new theories
o ResearchObservationsHypotheses Theory

qualtiative research


what reserach methods do psychogists use
. Deductive research tests pre-existing theories
o TheoryHypothesesresearchObservations
⬢ 2. Inductive research generates new theories
o ResearchObservationsHypotheses Theory

qaulititive research
methods include feild observations, unstructured interiviews focus groups and anlysis written texts an folk tales
rich descriptive infomration

qauntative reserach
data numerica in nature
summary statistics
methods include experimental studies, quasi experimental designs and correaltional studies

qauzi experiments
lack random assignment hence contrasting two differant cultural gorups on a depndent varible, we are assumign that differances have to do with cutlural membership , cannot assuem causality

what unique methodological challenges do cultural psycholgists encounter and how do they fixed them.
1) translation problems
develop questions that are most assessable to translation

what unique methodological challanges do cultural psycholgoical encounter?
develope questions that are most asssesable to translation
use short senstance

billingual technique
billingual particpants complete both versions of the measure.

the back translation tecnqiue

after orignal material have been translated into the target lnaguage , anouther billingual indivual indepndanlty translated materials back into the orignal langague

concept of methodological equivalence
having one methods perceived in idenital ways, idustiralized vers not doesnt really work
unversity students bias
less power industralization veres industlraization

moderacy extermety bias
tendency for peopel from different cultures to vary in terms how likley they were to express their agreemtn in a mdierate fasion or extreme fasion
east asins tend to be more moderate


no middle asnwer

standeradizing data,
however means you can only compare patterns in resonces rather than average resonces across cultures

acquisence bias
people difffer to the extent to which they tend to agree with statments they encounter

solution reverse scoring
east asians tend to have holistic apporach see many possible truths

reference group effect
chinese verses denamark


avoid subjective measures
conctrete measures , i got o the bathroom twice a day

deprivation effects
peopel value personal saftey only when personal saftey is at risk

cross cultural experiemnts

in cross cultural studies one improant indepdnant varible ones cultural background cannot be manipulated
cultural experiemtns are qausi expeirments, cannot detemrine causality
betwen (protected from all thsoe responce basies
order effects

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