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classical studies


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what was the kigns peace and year
386 bce spartains sign as a result given control over cities of ionia
sack of cornith
146, cities compelled to join alliance
legends of origins one aneas
trjan prince escaped from troy with his father Ascanuis/ Lulus carried father anscauis on hsi back, went to italy met up with king latinus maried his daugter lavina, son ascantuim founded city of alba longa, 12 kings ruled
legends of origin aenease
trojan prince escaped from troy with is father and son , carreid anchises on his back sailed west and establishe ed a new settlement sun established alba longa ruled by the 12 kigns
romulus and remus
amuluis overthrew brother numitor, made rhea shilva a vestal virguin so numitor wouldent have any hiers, mars came down impregenated her, amuluis had the boys abandoned on the tigir rivier, they founded rome romulsu killed remus
2c4a20q10tp2c 8 preitors
censors auideles- fight fires did festivals questors- treasurey officials preitors judges
lex villa annalis
10 between councils 2 betweens senatorial position
auctoritas Senatus consultum
authority actions carried alot of weight controled finaince foreign realtions
nobiles vs novos homo
ancestor had held a office position no ancestor had
no opporuntiy for the poor ot rise up everyones best interset to keep people in power
third punic war
carthage annexed
results for roman expasion
land became devestated, no farmers to farm it, increase in slavery an rome ie cheap labour, could get cheap grain from outer provinces, number of poor grew, because moor famers were removed from their land
social war 91 88 bce
war of alies, itialins revolted because they were fed upw ith not having citizenship , maruis came out of returiment o fight, sulla elected in 88 , pleaban tribute suggeted maruis be given the command over sulla, sulla marched his troops on rome
return of sulla 83
sulla marches on rome with an army leads full scale civil war bewtween populares supporters of cinaa and supporters of culla pompay offered support of sulla in the way of soldiers sulla butchered poltical oponents
central requirement of religion
god exsit, cannot be taken for granted very tradition correct performance is critical, imperfection could anger the gods, religious dueties were a result of peronsla birth status
a scrupulous awe of superhuman shit
lares panates
protected houshold deities, physical property, were ancestral, followed a family, romans greeted the lare when crossing the threshold, can be asociated with neighborhood, some protected city, town community could be expanded from family into larger groups
shrine where penates lares were put
pax deorum
peace of the gods, als o means harmony favour, gods give withhol favour prosperity
means sence of duty, concept of maintaining proper realationships with parents acestors freinds insitutions, fellow citizens gods in world around you, god dont teach ethics
feb 15th assocaited with romulus and remus assoicated with wolf in cave preists sacrfifice goasts, a dog and 2 you ment of nobile birith smeared with blood, have strips of leather, go wip people asssociated with fertility
job of augurs find out from gods whether something was favourable or not inherted form etruscans
pontefex maximus
job held by eletie mejmber; held of life 16 pointiffs chief adminstrators/organizers of religion 15 flamines responsible of day to day running of some cults 6 vestaval virgins 16 augurs
sacred chickens see if they act propertly to see if somthing was favourable or not bad sign if they refuse to eat grain
cattle worms
concept of maintianing proper relationships with ancestors freinds insitutions, fellow citizens, gods in the world around you
pontifex maximus
job held by elite member held for life
free vs slave
basic division of class
roman citizen rights
vote, hold public office, marry other citizens, commerce, trail before urban preitor, right to appeal against magistrational abusues
inolved in trade tax collecting, import/export money lending coudl run for questior, tunic and toga with narrow 1 stripe
slave state
no persons body and labour belonged to onwer rome a slave state in both ideology and umber 30-40% played important part in production espeically after rome captured a lot of slaves in war
senatus consultum ultimum
ultimate advice of senate ceasor knew choice; disband army or march on rome crossing the rubcon, "the die is cast"
reforms of juluis ceazar
1) calender 2) increased number of magistrates to allow for the expanding empire settled veterans in colonies in italy granted citizenship to some proncies increased the senate in to 600- 900
ceazars building program
1) buitl the Basilica jului - for basic judicial functions 2) rebuilt senate house 3)ceasars formum, - large columb area with temple to venus in the back area
ids of march 15 44 bce
Brutus and other senators stabbed him over 23 times revolution of senators not people, upset senators and idea of libertas, senators uner his system could not pursue his system.
ciero vs mark anthony
cicero declared mark anthony a public enemy, octaivian gave speical to go with consuls to fight him
octavia vs anthony
celopatra potrayed as a drunken besotted fool, octavian, standing for traditional roman rules wasy of life,he illegaly obtained anthonys will kept by vestal virigns, said he watned to be born in alexandria, 32 bce senate deprived anthony of truimvirate powers; war declared against cleopatra 1/3 of senate joined anthony and cleopatra
battle of actuim 31 bce
anthony and cleopataras force destroyed and forced to escape to eygpt, antony committed suicide so did cleopatraa
octavains position after the battle of actuim
cesarian put to death, because he was ceazars son, took personal control of eygpit
agustus and proconsular imperuim
greater imperuim, right to overide goveners in everypronice and in the city of rome
agustust pontifex maximus 12 bce
lepidus died agustusts got important religous
pater patriae 2 bce
father of the country
princepts/ principate
leading citizen/ agustus emphasized not imperuim but influence actoritas
agustus restoration of the republic
he made it seem like the republiuc had been restored but he and all the power/authority in the new system
mos maiorum
the custom of the ancestors, heratige of precident, important idea because romans were conservation, restoration of poltical structures identifiable with the traditions of the republic ie traditionr religoin, ie during ciivl war temples were in dissaray
what did he do to appear to restore the republic - elections
assemblies still met other peopel could be elected consuls becaus he wasnt one agustus had actoritas to pass legistlation he wanted
what did he do to appear to restore the republic
attempted to reconcile senatorial order to his regime, ceasar dint respect senate enough, restored its prestiger, enrolled more patricians, reduced the number of senators, raised property qualifications made more freinds lowered age of questorship, made it a more exlcusive prestigous club, showed senate respect regularly attended
agustus roles for cenators
goveners of sentorail proences, ex concosl legati, agustus chose ex consuls and ex prietors to govern his provinces prefect of the city- ex consul responsbile for keeping order in the city
agustus jobs for equestrains
goveners of smaller provinces judaea, sardina corsica prefec to fleet, commander of navy prefect of the pretorains, 2 posts commander of imperail body prefect of virgiles, firefighters and police prefect of annova grain supply prefect of eygpt
agustus restoration of religoin
peitas - advenged his fathers death, restore soem oldest cults, temples adn ceremonies preisthoods. he was both a pontifex maximus and a preist founed secular games, cerimonly of old traditions, passing the seaculum every 110 years begginong of the golden age purification of the state
agustus restoration of republic family values
- encouraged peopel to wear togas - distingquested between free adn slave, socail order aspect ie restricted manumission, people had to sit in differant seats according to wht class status they were , octvia promtoed family values contrast to cleopatra
restoration of family values continued adultery laws
now a state offesnice, hustband had to divorce her wife and declare adultery he would be concidered pimping, unfair system, men could have sex with slaves adn shit
what did agustus need to fix in the administration of the city
large population of urban poor needed looking after, fires and floods were hazads
A - redivision of districts
now 14 standard division of city until later rome in 256 districts and wards to foster local potriotism
lares genuis of agustus
genuis augusts , like genuis of patrifimiliars, he wasnt worshiped as a god but his genuis was.
polce - A
established a policeforce under a prefect, 3 urban cohorots, under equestrin prefect, oversaw police had judicial responsibilties
A- pretorian gaurd
personal body guards of the empire
a- gain supply
took control of grain suppy to supply cheap grain he estalbished an equestion office of prefect of the grain supply personally took one xpense through own supply
given the task of looking after water supply, buildign and maintnence of aquiducts
a- building project Saepta julia,
large building for voting republic insituion
a- building project pantheon, building dedicated to gods associated with julian clan imperlail family
building dedicated to gods associated with julian clan imperlail family
a- bp - bath complex
romans fond of public bathing, first public there were private ones with fees
a- bp - amphitheature of taurus and theature of balbus
amphitheature built by talluis tarus furst permenent ampitheature in city 29 bce
a - pb - theature of marcellus and proticus of octavia
augustus finished theature dediicated to marcellus octavians son, ceasars nephew supposed to succesed but diei/ constructed portico surroundign 2 temples was repulbican building but rebuitl either by agustusu or octavia but associated with octavia ,
a - musoleum and arapacus (altar of peace)
begun in 28 finnished 23 early in agustus rien, 1) good way of showing ihs permance, dynastic monument + mark anthony wanted to be buried in alexandira agustusu watned to be buried in rome as per roman tradition
horolguim sundail
large obelisk brought from eygpit, insciption deidicated to sun, set up in 19 bc 20th anniverserary of capture of eygpt, used as pointer of collosal sundial into into pavent
temple of apollo
made vow to god that if they defeated sextus popei he would build a temple, renwied vaow at battle of actuim
the roman formum
centarl message tha the was leadign romans to recover forgotten values traditions adn rites of the past highlight that the republic had been restored, social poltical commerical center
senate house, rostra golden milsesonte
juilin sentate hosue, the one that was burned down
basiclica julia and basilca amemilia
used for judical and some buisnes matters, begun by jc finnshed aby Aug,dedicated teh protic to his grandosns, associated buildign with faimily
temple of divine juluis 29 bce
built before he became sole emperror, he was still octavian finnished by augustus, sight were jc creamated sponteosu funeral in teh formum, made jc a god
pax agusta
clsoing door fo temple janus only done when rome was at peace, hadent been closed for 200 years he closed it
agustus army
60/60 legions was to many for empire to handle reogranized ened up with 28 legions, establsihed permanents navy harbours, army now loyal to agustus rather than general., he gaurenteed their rewards on discharge adn becaem their patron. expanded rome as a genral more than anyone else
roman art and architcuture
linked to propiganda of the state.
legitamacy of agustus and his art and agriculture
needed to link with his father who was diefied continued jc's bulding projects agustus needed image of restorer of peace, wasnt only interested in securing own power had to show concern for the state litaraly resoncible for rebuilding rome
location and context of ara pacus
peity represented ara pacis, altar of peace instead of truimphal arch. give idea that gods are no agustus side, divine plan written in the stars ara pacis mentioned in res Gestae, most beatiful and symbolcaly chaged moment of antiquity, historical and mytholtogical sinfigance
ara pacis interior
patera, sacfificail dish for pouring libation instrument speaks of peity, bucrania skulls of cattle.
ara pacis west side
mars romulsu remus she wolf, aeneas (origins)
north procession
inagural sacrifice scene from 13 bce, have imperal family senators, dignitiaires priests.
south procession
imperial family- first time children depecited
east side
roma (Godess embodiement of rome), sitting on a shield and armour agustus trying ot say they are at peace
prima porta agustus
full length statue show breastplate imperator- head of romes military forces adlocutio- adresssing troops held lance in right hand., return of the partain standards
patria postests
paternal pwoer , literally meant under his control , legal ownership of everything, propery slaves childen
modest ideal in dress and actions also could be called matrons
legal ages of marrage
g = 12 boys - 14
traditional oldest type of wedding known with the emmerwheat cake offered cake with sacrifices before 10 witnesses, impossible to divorce
coemptio cum manu
ficitios sale of daughter brigns out sales, figure out ho wmuchs hes wroth has 5 witnesses
sine manu
when father died, she became sui uirus, independent, get a male tutor to take care of her legal matters
pufiication ritual
amulet given to child to wear intened to ward of evil
private fund, could be given to son or slaves released from control of patrifamilas, father coudl transfer money and proeprty to him officail
released from control of paterfamilias
if slave killed master all slaves under roof killed slaves affectionate with free children, praticaly raised by slaves could be given a fiar bit of freedom
through hall of entrance
hall, enter from outside, through fauces common spot, cleints guests come images records of family acnestors kept here
brings water into the house
where paterfamilias did buisness
continued fathers undertaking
mission defeat persian king, succesfull., establish great impressive empire hsi infleunce is important in aisain world
worship of isis
development of a rulers cult, serphes spraed from egypt development of a rulers cult
west side
mars, romulus, remus aaneas
nroth procession
inagual sacrifice scene , have imperial family, senators, dignitaries

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