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personality dynamics of Intimate Abusiveness


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new theory proposed to account for individual differences in the tendency to be abusive, assaulting or homicidal in intimate relationships.
incidence and prevailence rates
studies report that assault rates by women against men are generally higher than comparable rates for assaulting men.
walker cycle of violence
phase one: characterized by escalating anger, accompanied by recognition that Behavoir is wrong.

Phase two: uncontrolable discharge that have built up turning phase one

Phase three: is characterized by contrition, confession, promises of reform and attempt to convince the victim/others abuse will not occur.

Definitions of BPO
unstable interpersonal relationships
procivlity of intense relationships
intermittent undermining of significant other, manipulation and masked dependency
unstable sence of self with intolerance of being along and abandonement anxiety.

revitch and schelsinger
described the catathymic personality that underwent three stages, incubation, violent act and releif.

1) incubation = depression, accompanied by constant sense of tension building.
releif experinced after cathymic vioolnce came from relase in stored up affect
both wife assult and BPO have been empiracly liked to childhood abuse.

BPO empirical Studies

argued that self referred assulters constitute a mor epure group whiel court refered samples were a more heterogenous group.
found that BPO scores that were similar to those diagnosed with BPO
PBO reported significnatly more abuse towards their wives both verbal, symbolic and physical.

Profiling Abusiveness
in effect the same constellation of personality features (high anger fearful attachment, chronic trauma symptoms and recollections of parental rejection) accounts for reports of abusiveness by ones intimate partners in all the above.
Origins of Abusiveness
the largest contributor to discriminative function on abusiveness was parental rejection.
both borderline personality and wife assult have been empricaly shown to have childhood oriigns. the possiblity exits that some common set of early experiences serves as a cause for both.
Attachment and Abusiveness
an adult introjects in the availability of attachment figures is b uild during the yaer of immaturing, infancy childhood and adolsence, whatever expectations arise during this time tend to continue throughout the duration of a lifetime

chronic frustration of attachment needs may lead to adult proneness to react with extreme anger (intmacy anger)
the attachment theory suggets that an assulative males voilent outbursts may be a form of protest behvoir directed at his attachment figure.
the style manifests in hypersensitivity to rejection and active avoidance of close relationships in which vulnerability to rejection exists.
feafully attached men experince high degres of both chronic anxiety and anger
fearful attachment is strongly correlated with BPO

attachment Distruption and Truama
fearfull attachment is correlated with the tendency to make blaming attributios to the parnter on relationship attribution measures.

wife assulters had significnatly higher scorers on antisocial personality and men with higher scores on dysthemia and anxeity

the result implies that acting out agression by wife assulters may dispel pent up dysthemia.

fearfull attachment
correlated with a tendency to make blaming attributions to the partner on a realtionship measure

fearfull attachment is correlated with BPO subscale for primitive defences: which has a tendency to split women into ideal and devulated objects and to project angry impulses on to them
by projecting unaccepatble impulses outward their protential to threaten a waek seklf concept is neutralized.

role a shame a mediator between early life experience of assultative men and their adult experince of anger and abusiveness.

in a sence shame inducing epxeirnces, generates shame prone styles may be viewed as attacks on a global self an should produce distrubances in self identity.
shame prone individuals have been found to demonstrate a limited empathetic ability a high propensity to anger and self reports of agression

dutton found that assaulttive men recollections of shame inducing expeirnces by thier parents were significantly related to the mens self reports of both anger and physical abuse to their wives.
Hence, abuse of rejection by parents insecure attachment and parental shaming all appear contribution to the formation fo a personality type in males that is associtive with abusvieness for menw with BPO serves the unevniable task of maintaining their ego integrity. these men depend on realtionships with female partnes to prevent thier fragile self hood from disintegrating.

relationship to socializing culture
cultures that divide into madonnas and whores provide sanction reinforcement of the object split in the assulative borderlien male.
men frequently blame ther female partner for thier own behvoir.
a Neurophysiological Model
is characterized by intense automatic arousal and overwhelming anger during violence
duttun reviewed neuroatnatomy and agression of homicides citing studies that found orbofrontal cortex matures during approachment suphase of early development
interfered subphase might result in low levels of serotonin and high levels of norephinephrine were suggest early biolgical method of spousal homicide.

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