This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

psych 308 text


undefined, object
copy deck
Cost of Social Rejections
being socially rejected from the group was akin to a death warrent given our profound dependance on other for food schelter defenses affection.


ball game pickle

FMRI reveal anterior cingualte cortex lights up the area that is responsible for pain

attachment theory
a theory about how our early attachment with our parents shape our relationships for the remainder of our lives.
Attachment theory study
romantic partners leaving the airport, attachment style correalted to amount of greif or physicall demonstrations of sadness upon saying goodbye

secure indiviudals tended to attribute thier partners negative behvoir in a more postive fasion than axous or avoidant type

relational self theory
theory that examines how prior realtionships shape our current beleifs feelings and interactions vis a vis peoople who remind us of significant others.

if participants listed traits like silly or irreverent when describing what she was like with her father these traits were more likely to appear in self description two weeks later.

communal relationships
relationships in which individuals feel a special responsibility for one another give and receive according to the principle of need, relationships often long term.
exchange relationships
in which individuals feel ltter responsiblity toward adn in which giving are receiving are goverend by concerns about equity and reciprocity often short term relationships
what is power
typically defined as the ability to control our own outcome and those of others
the power that derives from institutionalized roles
is behavior that has the acquisition or demonstration of power as its goal.
were does power come from
power can derive from expertise
rewards to others
finnaly power derives from ability to serve as a role model.

approach inhibition theory
if you have power you should be less concerned about evaluations of others and more likely to engage in approach related Beauvoir to satisfy your goals and desire.
social dominance orientation
the desire to see ones group dominate over other groups, is strongly endorsed by individuals associated with the more powerful groups

strongly correlated with with predjidce and discrimination.

triangular theory of love
a theory that states that there are three major components of love passion commitment and intimacy which can be combined in differant ways
investment model of romantic satisfaction
a model of interpersonal relationships that maintains that three things make parnters more committed to each other is the relative rewards and investment in the relationships.
dangerous attributions and marital success
one robust construal tendency is negative attractions

dissatisfied distressed couples make attributions that cast the relationship in a negative light.

creating strong romantic bonds
active constructive: are event when one partner responds to good news of another by engaged enthusiasm
passive constructive
active destructive
passive destructive

active constructive capitalization greater relationships success.

be playfull
humor and laughter task condition

non hummor laughter task condition

playfully arousing condition reproted significnatly higher marital satisfaction.

success in marige outline
be playffull
care and forgive

creating strong romantic bonds thought active constructive responces


stereotypes: beleifs that certain attributes are characteristics of particular groups
refers to an attitudinal and affective responce toward a certain group and its individual members

refers to negative and harmfull behvoir directed toward members of particular groups.
modern racism
is identified as the rejection of explcit racist beleifs while maintaing and enduring animosty towards mintority groups
study of modern racism
when they excelled in every catogory they were accepted but when they equal to a white person but worse in differatn categories they rated those cateogires in which the black participant was poor at as the most important for success. rascism

helping a person on the ground you help them no matter what if they are white or if there is no one around, but if other people are around you have an excuse to be racist

benevolent racism sexism
found that benevolant sexism often coexists wth hostile sexism

inhibits inequality by promoting behvoir limits equality

stay in the kitchen women

reveals subtle non concous prejudices even on the part of those who advocate universal equality and high regard to all groups.

black and gun fast response

black and hero slow responce

Priming and Implict Prejudice
an implicit measure of prejudice can thus be derived by comparing a persons average reaction time to positive and negative words preceded by faces of members of the target category.
realistic group conflict theory
predicts correctly the pejduce and discrimination should increase in times of economic difficulty
realistic group conflcit theory studies
number of lynching and cotton prices

robers cave experiment
2.5 weeks summer camp
two groups

the competative tournament was designed to encouraged each group to see the other as impediment to the fulfillment of its own goals and hence a foe

there was quite a bit of inter group hostility

once superordinate goals: goals that transend the interests of one individual group that can be aceived reaidy by two or mroe groups workign toegether

after supordinate goals introduced they became freinds.

motivation perspective
intergoup hostility develops even in the absence of competition
minimal group paradigm

how many dots are on the wall

low estimation group

high estimation group

participants maximized the relative gain of their in group and minimized the relative gain of their out groups

these out groups were minimal categories.

motivational perspective

social identity theory

a theory that says a self concept and self esteem derive in part form the groups in which we belong.


groups that descrimiatned anmotuehr group increased theres elf esteem

motivation perspective

Basking in Reflected Glory

the tendency to take pride in the accomplishments of those with whom we are in some way associated.
motivational perspective

basking in reflected glory

social identity theory

minimal group paradigm

cognative perspective
all of this categorizing has its purpose: it simplifies that task taking in the processing a increadable volume of information the presents it self.
cognative perspective study
as the expermenters ancipiated the use of stereotypes eased students burden helping them perfomr better and also better on a mutlple chocie test not realted to the stereotype
cognative persepctive list
Biased information processing
Self Fulfilling Prophecy
distinctiveness and illusory correlations
out group homogeneity effects
explaining away exceptions

Out Group Homogeneity effect
the tendency that in group similarity is much stronger for out groups than for in groups
Biased information processing
stereotypes can therefor be self reinforcing. actions that are not consistent with a stereotypes are seen as not significant, ignored and quickly forgotten
self fullining prophecy and coganative perspective for racism
acting in a way tends to produce the behoir that we anticiapted


interviewers of a black particapants sat farther away and hummed and hawwed more.

Disctinctiveness and illusory correaltions
an erronous bleif about the connections of two events

two thigns stick out

being black

somthign negative

black and negative

explaining away exceptions
expalining away expections to a stereotype attributing behvoir consistent with the stereotype to the disposiitons of the people invovled

and attributing behvoir not consistent to external cause.

reducing stereotypes Prejudice and discrimination
contact between members of different groups can lessen the intergorup animosity, espeicaly if this contact invovles one to one interactions between individuals of equal status, if it encourages the cooperative persuit of super ordinate goals and if is its supportd by the prevailign norms in each group.
social facilitation
triplet beleived that the presence of other tended to facilitate human performance

cyclists time vs solo

however some did worse in groups

Zajonic Theory
argues that the mere presence of others tended to facilitate perfomrance on simple well learn tasks and hinder performance on more diffuclt or novel tasks

arousal tend to make people more likely to do what they were already inclined to do that is there dominant responce

cockraoch study
the presence of other croches faciliated performance in a well learned task getting to the end of a straight trac

while in inhibited cockroaches in the mroe complex well learned task.

evaluation apprehension
a concern about looking bad in the eyes of other evaluated that is important.

need to distinguish it from mere presence in zajonic theory

testing for mere presence
had participants take off their own shoes, put on a pair of lab socks

put on a pair of oversized lab shoes

in the presence of a repair man

how quickly they could put on thier own clothes vs how well they could put on unfamiliar clothes

zajonics theory predicts that they should change their own clothes faster and novel clothes more slowly when in the mere presence of another person.

distraction Conflict Theory
an theory based on the idea that being aware of anouther person presence a conflcit between attending to a the task and attending to them which creastes the arousal wich then creates the arousal.
emergent properties of groups

the reduced sence of individual identity accompanied by diminished self regulation that comes over people when they are in large groups.

suicide bating
peopel occational engage in suciide bating urginhg individauls to jump

suciidie bating was more likely to occur if it was past 6 pm and if the crowd exceeded 3000

lack of anonomity and deindivudaation of the group

conduct in war
de individuaation
as predicted there was a strong correaltion between deindiduation and aggressiveness in warefare.
halloween mayehm
children who were asked ther names by the paricpants were less likely to take extra candy or steal money
self awareness theory of groups
a theory that maintains that when people focus their attention inward on themselves they become concerned with self evaluation and how their current behavior conflicts to their internal standards values.
spotlight effect
peoples convictions of other peopel are attending to them their appearnce and behvoir more than is actualy teh case

college studentss who were given alchol gave speeches with less first person pronouns.

Group Think
Jans argues that these calamitous decisions were made because of group think and a kind of faulity thinking on the part of highly cohesive group in which critical scruity that should be devoted to the siseus at hand are subverted by social pressures to reach a consensuts
Elements of Janis’s Group Think Hypothesis
- Antecedent conditions
- High cohesiveness
- Insulation of the group
- Lack of procedures for information search and appraisal
- Hish tress with a low degree of hoppe for findigna better solution than one favored by the leader or other influencial people
- Motivation
- Concurance seeking
- Symptoms of group think
- Symptoms of Group Think
- Illusion of invulnerability
- Collective rationality
- Belief in inherent moraliuty fo the group
- Stereotypes of outggorups
- Self censorhisp
- Illusion of unanimity
- Symptoms of Defective decision making
- Incomplete survey of objectives
- Incomplete survey of alternatives
- Poor information search
- Failure to examine risks of preferred choice
- Selective bias of processing the information at hand
- Failure to reappraise alternatives
- Failure to work out contingency plans

preventing group think
making sure the group is not cutt off from a outside input. individuals who have not been privy to the early stages of a discussion can provide a fresh perspective as well as put the breaks on risky actions that might result otherwise

designating one person in the group to plays devils advocate.

group think in other cultures
Group think in places like japan can be so great , that even at scientific meeting there is rarely true debate or any other exchange that might appear confotnration or cause anyone to lose face.
- Science suffers

Group polarization
tendencies for group decisions to be more extreme than those made by indiviudal members.

persausive arguments

each person is exposed to a new argument which is like minded which therfor pushes the extremety of the group

socail comparison

people think they are risker than the average person so they shift their subjective risk to be riskier than other people upping the anty

peopel value taking risk over caution

Deck Info