This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.



undefined, object
copy deck
boundaries of the earths major biomwes are shifiting, tropics are expanding north - boreal forest is expanding into the tundra

hybrid between grizzly and polar bear meaning a shift to mroe interaction between creatures of different biomnes - creating lifecyle imbalances
shows disequilbruim of ecosystem change associted with global warming, also shows certian environmentla areas are in greater risk that others - ie polar bear arctic, and tropical biodiverity hotspots.

svante arrhenuis - industrialization and climate change
key conceptual breakthrough link between climiate change and industrialization

if you could cut amount of c02 by 50% you would get 4-5 degree drop in temperature - first to make this connection

said that humans are upsetting balance by adding more that natural processes can hold - consensus beleived that world was much more of a carbon sink than it is

Environmental Determinism
the beleif that th environment, espeicaly its physical aspects such as landofrms are of human culture and development

goes back to anceint greece

montesqui - \"cold countires have very little sensibility for pleasure

ellen churchill semple - \"man is a product of the earths surface\" - theories were used by nazi germany discreded becuase of their link to heirahcially organizing the superoirity of races

had a profound influence on modern geogrphy linking physical sceince to human culture
rose again with jared diamond when he explained dominance of europeans due to agriculture, specificaly the distribution of araible land lead to higher populations, more technology, more resistance to disease and dominance

Kyoto Protocol
first legislated redcutions in ghg, 150 member nations signed it, included cap and trade intitaives, and carbon sink initiaivies, since its signing the united states has dropped out,

overall it has had a timid effect on ghg effect, but is is a crutial first step towards mroe strignent future treaties.

Interestingly it included no provisions for industrializing countries.

targets 5% reduction till 1990 levels.

Greenland Norse
erik the red and the norse colonization of greenalnd
moved to island, from norway - where people farmed having houses made of turf and sod - way to much needed
food prefernces taboos - to much relaince of onland food
religous ideals before cultural ideals
relianc on old cultural patterns of animal domestication, this combined with a bout of unlucky weather really put them in.
taboo fish prefernce

combined wiht little ice age - you need to adapt your culture to the environment.

children of the Sun
humans are dependant on the suns energy to fuell themselves
first - harvest fire, turn photosynthesis to power by igniting biomass
using fire and cooking allowed us to miantin smalls tomachs thus allowing us to ahve metabolically big brains as a reuslt of cooking practices culture expanded dramtically
next came domestication - light into direct caloric intake
agriculture fomred big population
columbian exchange created more flexable agricutluresal system
helped saved thousands from starving to death
COAL - the indusiral revolition brought areovltion ultizieation of suns energy, new way of using the suns energy to fundamentaly reshape the planet.
oil - 50% more suns energy ICE revolutionized transporation.

ties patterns of energy use of the sun to increasing manipuation of the environment.

presentism and the inuits
as griffths argues in: camels int eh arctic, a portion of the inuit soceity has not accepted climate change as a issue of contention, instead they beleive it has to do with media driven southern agenda
more imporantly the inuit i sa culture of self reliance and cultural survivial
there a instensly practical people focus on adaptation and current environment
flaws parrelels to us.

tragedy of the commons
if everyone acts upon thier own self interst the destruction of resoruces and environemnt will occurs.

critism of privitization and modern capitlist practices rational economic decisions lead to irrational endings

need more regulation, population control.
culture is key to shaping resoruce use
culture is key to shaping resource use

our common future

Brundtland Report 1983

attack on materialism - towards sustainable development- poverity as a cause of environemntal degridation
meeting present needs without compromising future needs = stimulates a certian type of growth and development.
environmental actions needs to acheive sustainable development
poverity is the cause of envuironmental degridiaiton
thus tieing soical and environemtnal issues.

Limits of Growth 1972
a book on computer modeling of economic and populationg growth emphsized finate levels of natural captial

the world is reaching its natural limit, radical idea at the time, advocated planned restrains on glboal population and resoruces use of global equilbruim.

concept the cronon aruges is a cultural invnetion ; we need to re think it
has become appropraited to our deepest core values
the irony is that processes of wilderness comes to reprsent the core values in which we were trying to reject
the ideology does not leave much room for humans to work ion the land, be part of the natural ecoloical cycle. it allows us to have two different worlds that dont necessarily interact.

Ecological Footprint
is a measure of humans demand on the ecosystems. it is the demand for natural captial that has a limited ability to regenerate
using this assesemnt it is possible to estimate if, eveyrone lived a certian lifestyles how many earths wouldl that take average 2.5

ress - through trade flows and ecolgoical regions are far surpasing the caryying capacity - modern economic models, dont count for externalities - ecological footprint allows us to conceptualize such disccoents and also paints a dramtic picture for where we are heading.

genetically improved agricultural selection
plant breeders knew if you crossed bred plants you would often get more productivity

Importance - differnces between monocultures - connection working with nature than agaisnt it.

usefruct rights
basically acknowedges for planting and gathering rights limited to a period of use. this i was in contrast to the increasing commodification of plant sand animals by europeans settlers, represent different mentalities towards land use

european land conoliziation become divorced from its use, became a commodity - begginings of environemntal degradiation
contrast to the ecological ideological and cutltural imperiasm of europeans.

ecological Imperiaism
Ecological imperialism is the idea that the true reason European settlers were so successful in the colonization effort was their introduction of animals, plants, and especially disease to new territories. The many pathogens they carried with them adversely affected the native populations of North America, Australia, and Africa, and were far more destructive than weaponry: it is estimated that disease wiped out up to 90-95 percent of indigenous people in some locations. Ecological imperialism also argues that the disregard colonists had for the environments they were invading upset the natural balance of the established ecological system. Has its origens in jaret diamons agriculture concentration argument, export of an ideology towards the environment is the most important part of economic imperialism.
⬢ Ecological imperialism came with a ideological and cultural imperialism. Fence becomes the symbol of a property regime a whole new way of seeing land, we need to think about more what were tied up larger political social economic values.

Is a monocultured foodstuff. Corn shows how far natural resources can be removed and modified from traditional environment. Furthermore corn represents the ignorance modern practice show toward ecological life cycle factors in the mass production of food. Most corn produced does not go to feeding people, but rather goes as primary input into producing chemically synthesized sugars and corn based products. In addition corn goes to feeding cows, which, while producing a higher weight for the cows cause various problems for cows including serous acidosis which require rounds and rounds of antibiotics. Corn is produced via monoculture and the NPK mentality – it is the perfect representation of the modern commoditized foodstuff. HAM
Bourlag Green Revolution
Found that incomaprison to composing had 30% higher yeilds

associted at a time when the farming was reaching its natural limit, limtis to how many people could feed int he world.

green revolution spread the use of expensive irragation presticidies fertilizers, farming, expensive captial venstment
subsidies part of agricutlrual ssytem
changed values within country - crops for market heighest yeild - huge investment - small farmers out
loss of biodiveirty due to monocultures - too much corn, seeds pattentned

Jane Jacobs
vocal critic of high modernist planning, HMP creates areas where people dont want to live
if you seperate residential and commerical reas, there is no street traffic not safe
argued housing projects become sysmbols for social helplessness
needed lots of interactions combined residents and commerical
neibourhood and cities needed to compact predistrian freindly - mixed of housing type
mixed use would encourage a better in engaged communities.

Polyface farms
• Polyface farm occupies 550 acres of rolling grassland in the Shenandoah valley of Virginia. Natural farm, free range , utilizes natural cycle of composting, growing and grazing of grass suns energy.
• Animal rightists betray the profound ignorance about the working of nature.
• Whats wrong with animal agriculture – tis the practice – not the principle
• Practice of importance of ecological life cycle.

Indore Method
⬢ Albert howard was against the modern agricultural experiment, howards model for idea of agriculture came from india
⬢ Found that local Indians were able to grow a huge maount of crops just by composing methods
⬢ Composed soil was made for the health of new plants
⬢ Influenced by spiritual concepts of gwoth decay

Robert Mcarison
• Dr
• Talks about the importance of healthfull food
• Praised the hunza people who had a deit rich in vegtables, beans and vegitrain protein
• “the physique of northern races of india is strikingly superior to that of the souther, eastern and western races. This difference depends entirely on the gradually dimisning value of food
• Rats compared british diet and hanzi deit – rats with the hanzi diet think about it.
• Gastrointestinal diseases same with british deit rats and british
• Financed based civilization as destroying itself and the peoples
• Proper agriculture is the foundation for democracy.
• Crique of growing way of westernized life based on agricultural practices. Moviement for organic ag – movement against industized `surgars` production.

Energy Regime
Is a broad term for the type of energy humans utilize to produce food and other products.
Somatic energy regime - humans powered by their own and their animals muscle
Coal energy regime – steam engine and automized factories during the industrial revolution.
Fossil fuel energy regime – changed the amount of energy humans could use in their processes.
The evolution in energy regime allowed people to go from a more sybioltic relationship with a earth to an exploitative relationship. The fossil ufel energy regime brought in the era of environmental degradation.

Annihilation of space and discipline of time
• The fossil fuel energy regime, brought the around the mechanization of factors for the past production of commodities, such developments put people on shift work
• This was in contrast to all the farmers who work on task oriented work and sunlight oriented work.
• The utilization of coal in factories and the industrial revolution, brought people off farms and into factories
• In addition, increases in transporation and communication infrastructure created a smaller world – easier to travel
• This shows how culture (social order) can be influenced by its interaction with the environment.
The change in energy regime that was associated with coal and the steam engine was ultimately behind the transformation of the social order and rapid urbanization- starting in the industrializing countries but spreading throughout the world.
• Changed places social place- previously associated with seasons, land, weather etc.
• Industrial revolution removes rural people from land and a new ability of humans to use machines to change and control natural landscapes for human uses.
• Human beings can overcome any natural limits through their ingenuity

Bridget Discroll
• Bridgette Driscol 1896- first person to be killed in an automobile accident.
o Lots of questions- was driver speeding? Reckless?
o Driscol was trying to weave in between cars to cross roads (confusion)
o Conclusion- car driven straight and slowly, accidental death
o Coroner said that he hoped ‘such a thing never happens again’
o So far kills around 60-90 million people
o Injures more than 34,000 every 6 hours
o These are always classed as accidents- daily life- cars have become normalized
• Underscores the normalization of automible consequences in dialy life.
• Car in our lives
• Shift in energy regimes from the age where steam engines and coal predominated to one where ICE and oil dominate
• Voilence in car accidents is a everyday thing
• Internal combustion engine changes how people see and connect with the environment
• Caro allowed people to gow wherever they want whenever they wasn’t – part of this car culture of boundless posiblities.
• Brought in a ear of oil dependencies and all the geopolitical consequences asscoited.
• The beinning of the car cultures also started mainstream capitalist consumption.
• By 1950a the majority of americans families had at least one car,
• All of this associated with a increasingly exploitative relationship with the environment.
• Democratizing leisure
o Road-trips to parks etc.
o Making parks accessible to cars was one of the mandates of the park officials in Canada and the US
o Roads give people the experience of wilderness
o Celebrated people’s confidence in nature
o Sierra Club- major component in making national park accessible to cars
 More people will support parks and environmental issues
• 2 key elements to road touring
• 1) accessibility and 2) the freedom the car gave people
o Unique individual experience- could determined own itinerary and no constraints
o Freedom from vast constraints
• Open road and the car- endless possibility
• Gaining licence opens up all different possibilities for that person


Peak Oil
Peak oil is the point in time when the maximum rate of petroleum extraction is reached, after which the rate of production enters terminal decline. Every oil well and field exhibits similar characteristics of being discovered, the logistics to extract the oil being put in place, a peak or plateau of production followed by relentless decline. US domestic oil production peaked in 1970. Global production of conventional crude oil plateaued in 2005 at 74 mb/d. There is active debate as to how to measure Peak Oil.
This concept is based on the observed production rates of individual oil wells, projected reserves and the combined production rate of a field of related oil wells. In order to understand physical Peak oil, the growing effort for production must be considered. Physical Peak oil occurs earlier, because the overall efforts for production have increased in the past few decades.[1] [2]
The aggregate production rate from an oil field over time usually grows exponentially until the rate peaks and then declines—sometimes rapidly—until the field is depleted. This concept is derived from the Hubbert curve, and has been shown to be applicable to the sum of a nation’s domestic production rate, and is similarly applied to the global rate of petroleum production. Peak oil is often confused with oil depletion; peak oil is the point of maximum production while depletion refers to a period of falling reserves and supply
Since every aspect of our lives is driven by oil, food communication, car culture, other forms heating, it shows how these resrouces can be used up.
o What cars standfor = freedom and independence
o ‘Our principle constraints are cultural...we have... a culture so heavily dependent’ Hubbert
o Cultural chaos without oil.

Pine beetle
⬢ A type of beatle that burrows into trees, and starves them their roots from nutrients and water and eventually killsthe tree
In BC the pine beetle infestation is usualy kept undercontroled by seasonal drops in temperature which kill off these beatles
⬢ However, global warming has reduced the severity of these cold streaks and thus allowed the bettle to survive all year round
⬢ In addition forest monocuutre policies sin BC created greater risk of infestation
⬢ Shows that climate change will have many unintent4d ecological consequences that we cannot even understand until they happen

Le corbuisier
Le Corbusier
• Early urban planner, wrote the radiant city, thought we should go up!
• Have people living in high-rises and have green space in between.
• Proponent of high density houses, combing large population with green spaces
• Limited access to highways
• Was to kill the street – pedestrian traffic and vehicle traffic to be separated
• Idea city efficiently and orderly
• Separation of functions- efficient flow of people goods and traffic – a high modernist pallner believed in birds eye planning.
• Significant early attempts to re imagine how people interact with their environment, more ecologically friendly cities.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
o Created 1988 by UNEP and the World Meteorological Organization
o No research done by itself but brings together all other research in “Assessment Report”
o Synthesizes climate science in “Assessment Reports”
 2007 Assessment Report= 2,823 pages, 1,325 authors, and 17969 sources
o Works by peer review and consensus
 Involves governments of different countries= political aspect
 Growth of governmental environmentalism= more interest
 NGOs represent grassroot groups
 Increasing degree of participation (and attitude change

Urban Metabolism
• It is a measure of the inputs and outputs required to run a city.
• Most cities have resource use that is unsustainab
• le and this has got worse over time.
• London’s footprint in terms of land use input is 300x its actual size.
• Nature is transformed into commodities that go into feeding cities – as these citie grow they draw on more of the natural resources- global food network
• Thus, people loving in cityies become disconnected from the imapcts of thee resource use
• Another example of a fundamental disconnect.
• Connection between the city and nature
o City chicagos an agent of environmental change
o Reciprocal relationship between the metropolis and the natural world
• Urban heat island
• Garbage
• Storm water drainage run off
• Connection between human saste soil
• Now we have a flush and forget mentality – see ntoes.n
• Disconnection with nature
• Rise of cities associate with

Environmental justice is social justice: redefining environmentalism

o NYC battle over the location of a crematorium in 1991
 Trinity Church Crematorium in service from 1980
 Huge pollution- covering Harlem where already there were lots of sewage and negative aspects of human life.
 Most people in Harlem were of a different ethnicity
 Rich white people burnt in the crematorium: pollution from bodies, mercury fillings, plastic body parts- causing respiratory disease
 ‘We can smell your mother burning’ Shirley Clarke, protester
 Connection between social problems and environmentalism often leads to the collusion that environmental distasters are in mainly a function of social disasters.
 Late 1991 crematorium shut down

NPK mentality
Birthplace with Norman Bourluag
• The belief that the only external sources of growth a plant needed was synthesized versions of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
• Early proponents,
• Justus von leibour- art is capable of providng subsitutiion.
• - “artificial manures lead to inevitability to artificial nutrition, artificial food, artificial animals, and finally to artificial men and women.”
• Synonymous with the birthplace of modern agriculture
• However
• - “artificial manures lead to inevitability to artificial nutrition, artificial food, artificial animals, and finally to artificial men and women.”
• NPK fertilizers not only cause problems kthorugh nitrogren run off, but also produce less nutrition food, because it does not provide the plant while all the required nutruints goes.

Deck Info