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frsty 1st midterm


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temperature varies cold winter warm summer become frost hardy become domrant there may be a defciency of water nutrience are int eh soil shortage of water
stable temperature, water is always there
vascular tissue
supports and transprots cells trachids the middle of the cell is called the lumen
carys nutrition from one generation to the next
bacteria 5000, single celled rots thigns dead and alive cause disease
fixing nitrogen
some bacteria the tree gets nitrogen, which is food and the bacteria gets food form teh tree
early stemtember
laove novemeber
december 13
land inhibited possible becuaes of nitrogen fixation and uv protection
december 15
tracheads developled
for h20 transporation
cell wall
strength and pertection
constantly wet the temperature does not vary dramatically from seasons to seas realtiaviely stable enviroment sex bits sw
december31st 1157 civlization 1145 humans
water resistnnce on the top of a leaf to stop the evaporation of the water out
classification of a tree
needs to be at least 9 feet tall
definition of a hybrid
a group of similar appearing organisms where hybrid memeber of dissimilar groups are sterile example dongk x a horse = a mule which cannot reproduce
k Bacteria
single celled no nucleas primitive breakdown dead vegitiation 5000 speices some photosyntheseize and some fix nitrogen (which is a good thing)
Protista k
organisms that are not easily plant like
usually single celled cause many disease rot things study of fungy mycollogy
fungis symbiosis
mycelia in the soil works with tree roots mycrohize fungus roots attach themselves to tree roots in order to absorb neutirnts the tree benefits as its surface area for the uptake of neuritns increase algea give fungo nutrienst fungi proved an enviroment for algi
animal kingdom
millions plants 1/4 million speices
angiosperms class
covered seed produce fruit leaves- broad leafed all are deciduoys in BC have vessels and fibers short that dont overlap mmore advanced gymniosperms 2 subclsasses dicot trees monocot grasses flower gender wood that gynmopsperm, exception aspen sap - syrup porous
whats a shoft angio
whats a hard gymno
naked seeds, cones conifers, needle leafed , evergreen (except larch which loses it needles traceids 3-10mm long 75 x A as long as they are wide softwoods excpect for yew resin (sap) distilled to make tarpinetine
common names
the species come firts then the genus the genus is ussually a anglicization of a greek roman roeint or native american word based ont he apperiance action colour habitiat or orgin of the tree. somtimes names are commemorative (example treling aspepen, gary oak, commmon names are not universally understood, cahnge with time
linnaeus classification system
usead dead latin languages latin an ggreek becuase they do not change over time first part of than name old word - pinus- pinus- pine genus speicies descriptor comes after genus
name of douglas fir
pseudotosugamenzii fanco
classifying an apple
plant seed plant, angiosperm, dictor, rosales, order, rose family malus domestic, arcv blenheim
3 examples of symbiosis
lichen, mycrorhiza, clarks nut cracker (takes the cone from the white bark pine, which has the heaviest seed in bc adn flies is far a distance to try and open it up
the lighest seed in bc
whte cotton wood
anouther word for endosperm, if there is no albumen then it it is called exalbuminous (CV= cultivated varitey)
how far do doug seeds fly
4x the height of the tree they should be able to repopulate space
seychelles in the innidain ocean
double cocounut, coc de mere- biggest seed in the world 20 kg
douglas flys up to 4x
dougls seed fly to 4x
in the indian ocean, double cocunot - coco de mer - biggest seed in the world 20 kg distributed
angiosperms fruit seed coat is the thin brown bit and outher coating is the furit cover
shade indtolerant
douglas fir is intolerant, it take sunlight, juvinnle trait of douglas fir, more shae tolerant than adult douglas doug mineral soil not organic soil,, mineral soil come sform landslide bolcanic eurption fires earthquakes hemlock is shade tolerant, can hanlde sun shade, yes is shade demanding
embrio dormancy
there are homrones in the seed form the mother that growth retarding. this happnes becuase winter is on the way if the seed started to grow the seeding would be destoryed in teh winter.
they want to grow but conditons are still not right, this is a second starge of dormancy protection cuases the change from dormancy to quenscene
how ot break embrio domrancy
put in the fridge 5 degrees
lets water and oxygen in, mechanical or chemical
tyrd type dormancy; ligh requiring seeds
small seed get buried and last forever until exposed to light when they start to grow,
root a typical meristem
will be more actiuve first , postivily geotrpic the roots grow down
where leaves are attached is called a node- the shoot between nodes is called an internode
in gymnosperms internodes are 1-2 mm in angiosperms internotes are up to 5 cm in lengh
1 leaf per nodes
leaves alternate
2 leaves per node
3 or more leaves per node
axulary bud in gymnosperms
1-20 gymnosperms a bump appears called an auxillary bud, the exels is the 90 degree angle between where the leaf and node are attached.
auxiliary buds produce
bud scales: anouther shoot apical meritsem sam make laeves
a lateral bud formed somtime in teh summer buds produce branches which will grow in the following year.
every year a terminal bud is produced
the stimulus to produce a terminal bud is the length of the photo period the amoung of time with the ligh when there is less ligh the terminal bud is produced
the dodo- extinct
the tree is called the dodo tree also exitnct becuase the seed fo teh doto tree has a very ahd seed coat which the bird could crack , became exitnct
atypical meristem
decided to quit growing and ofmr a terminal bud based on the length of teh day, the palnt meaures hte legnth of the night, to grow marrinawa leave light on at night to extent growth
its late summer and the night are getting long, the leaves received a message from the enviroment
the leafs receive a message to produce dorman, a chemical which prompt dormancy (also calle dabsccisn, makes leaves want to fall of these chemciasl are then sent to the palnt whihc tells the plant to stop growing, everygreend ont drop their needles though
6 or 7 weeks longer night, rest stage
you can cut the leaves off defolation or give the plant more light but it wont start to grow again it is in a stage of non grwoth calle rest, to break rest winter is necessary, then after winter warmth growth begins again
corlleated inhibition
shoot growing stops becuase of the nightsare longer.
roots forst hardiness
- 10 degrees. expo example
leaf colours
red (anthycyanins), chhlorophill (Green) carotines (red)
unstable to light, ligh lable, destoryed by light all the time so it has to ocnstatly be reaplced, anouther short day message tells the deidous trees to stop makign chlorophyl photosynthese
yellow orange, not sure what it is fo r
red (anythcyanins
fairly simple sugar compound / derivatives get sugars form photosynthesis the more sugars the more anthycanins, therefor mor eligh tmakes mor sugars makes more anthycanins.
for long thisn cells and the conduction of water
for condcution of sugars etc mroe quickly destoryed by abcision anouthe rmessage for short days exports sugars for the shoratge theirfor their is a cumulation of colours
has nitrogen fixing nodules, trees with nodule,, that nitrogen fix dont change colour because they dont need to recycle thier nutirents, they have enough.
vareigated leaf
white and green mutant
juvinile trait
young leaves stay on green on a tree longer
temperature starts growth in the spinrg
cherry blossom festival in japan the date has been recoreid for centures and it cahnges every eyar, if ths tart of the growth releon on the nigh tlength it would be the same every years but ut changes
heat threasholds
how we break thresholds in the srping
threathold demperature doug
5 degrees
heat sum
temperature above threshold x time
interior douglas has lower heat sum that coast douglas
siberian larchw ill not in vancouver, siberain larch has a low heat sum in vancouver it would burst its buds to early and get killed by frost
cork cambrain
protection occurs when the stemp plists vascuarl cambrain as it grows
higher heat sum
buds bust later
lammas growth
more space more growth, bad becuase it may lead to frost damge, it robs the plant of grwoth in teh follwoing year so you end up with smaller buds
breathing holes
spur shoots
short shoots
long shoots
long shoots
excurrent branching
flat ahnge not long, most of wood is on main stem, gymnosperms and somitmes young angiosperms so exucrrent bracnihng can be a jubinnle traith
de current branching
in agiosperms, laterl buds and terminal buds grow into laogne rshoots, forestes dont like this cuase the wood is in the branches
lobardy poplar cypress
weeping willow
a bunch of vasucal bundles
myciliam starnd symboiosis
tree gets extra water from incraese root area fungi gets nutrueins from the tree
alge fungus = lichens symbosiosis
fungi gets a palce to live algae gets photosytheis
angiosperms (everything
fruit breaing trees deciduous bc tee is evergreen arbutus many evergreen angios in teh tropical rainforest broad leaves, hardwoods aspen most common good grain pourous low harvest index asthentically nicer sap
500 speices usualy have cones confiers evergreen but three decidous larches needle leaf trees scale leaves soft wood blah grain when wounded tree resin non porous high harvest index
order family genus species
common names how are they determined
species appearance, behvoir, place -
hwo are common names determined
speices appearnce behvoir place wester white pine trembling south alpine similiarity to somthing else names of people, douglas fir gary oak
whats wrong with common names
not good for universal language, more than one common name so no common name at all
millions insects are very important in plant reproduction
after monarchdom taxon comes
monarchdom division class order genus speisce variety individual
angio vs gymno
angio 23,000 speices gymnosperms 500-600 speices
subclasses of angiospermers
dictots (trees) monocots (daffodils and tulips)
size of traceads gymno vs angio
gymno - traceads 3-10 mm long, 75 x as long as they are wide (softwoods except angio 3/4 to 2mm long
density exceptions angio gymno
angio - aspen soft wood gymno - yew hardwood
carl lineaus
plant classification,latin and greek names so people can fuck wiht it pinus = pine cedrus - cedar catalpa - indian beans tsuga - hemlock juglans - walnuts salix - willow
douglas fir aka
pseudotsuga, menzise franco
with embrio
exhalbuminous / aka food
wihtout embrio \9aka food
douglas fir
pseudotosu menxii franco douglas exploer seed from a cone when the cones are matured they turn browna dn there scales open to let seeds out see digram
nutcracker bird and white park pine
bird eats seeds but spread the seads id doienst eat
lightest seed in bc
shade demanded plant
shade tolerant
one the seed has landed on the soil it lieks teh michits it likes good soil good shade good spot do not grow right away becuase the winter will kill the plant so the plant remains domrman
how does it know to be dormant
they meaure the length of the dark period, when the dark is a shorter length then the plant knows that it is summer and when it is dark for a long period of time it is winter
how to break embrio dormancy
in order to use coldness imitate winter
definition of dormancy
a physiological condition in which growth does not occur depsire good ocnitions mois warm becuase of mothers hormones
after dormancy come qeiscent
wants to grow but condiitons are not favourable
physical scratching or chemcial process that lets water inside the seed and breaks embrio dormancy
type 2 domrnacy seed coat impermeability
they need to be scratched or scarified inorder for oxygen to break dormancy ie ploughing feilds
3rd stage of dormancy light requring seeds
birch small seeds get burired and last forever unitl exposed to ligh where grow slide monet and the oppy feils in france becuase of twarfare
coconut seed development
coconut seeds have very thick fruit wall see coat impermaibility the white solid an liquid part inside is the endosperm, the embrio is imbeeeded in teh endsoperm. model for how most big seeded plants germinate
thbe shoot between the nodes is called a internode angio/ gymno
gymno 1-2mm mm angios 5cm in length
the axel is the 90 degree angle between where the leaf and node are attached
auxiliary buds produce budscales
budsclase are anouther shoot apical meristem, buds produce branches primordia, a lateral bud formed somtime in the summer, buds produce branches, which will grow in the following year
terminal bud
the stimulus to produce a terminal bud is the length of hte photo period, the amoung of time when there is light the terminal bud is less light produced
a chemical, which prompt dormancy, dorimin is also called abcissin
makes the leaves want to fall off, these chemicals are then sent to the plant which tells the plant to stop groiwng, evergreens dont drop their needles though
roots frost hardyness
roots dont develope frost hardyness as much becuase undergound it is warmer frost hardy -10 degrees c
chlorophyll, photosynthesis
anouther short day message tells the deciduous treees to stop making chlorophyll
fairly simple sugar compounds deriviatives get sugars form photpsynthesis the more sugars the more anthycyanins ther for more light makes more sugar makes more anthocynains
message from teh tree come fall
xylem, for long thin cells for the conduction of water, phloem, for conduction of sugars, more quicly destored by the abscciions zone, anouther message from shorter days, exports sugars for storage accumulation of sugars red storing.
some trees dont change thier clour, they drop their leaves green , those who nitrogen fixate
alder is nitrogen fixing has nodules, trees with nodules, change colour becuase they dont need to recycle their nutrrients
juvinle traight 2
young leaves stay green longer
handout? vascular cambruin, cambrian , cortex cork cambrain.
by c the gaps between the vascular bundles get filled in by more vascular cambruim cells, no the cambruim is a single layer like the finger of a rubber glove. by c the gaps bundles get filled in by more vascular cambruim cells, no the cambruim is a cambruim is a single layer like the giner of a rubber glove. by d the vascular cambrain has been producing xylem ito the inside and floem to the outside, which means the circumference incrases so we need somthing to reparir the splits the cork cambruim.
interior douglas
interior douglas has a lower heat sum that coast douglas, siberain larch will not in vancouver, if it came to vancouver its buds would burst too early the get frosty
spring ephemerals
pop buds early, have low heat sum, inside a bud leaf primoridal
higher heat sum and old plants
young plants more likely to have lamms growth, more space = more growth
is lammas growth
bad becuase damage, it also robs the plant of growth in the following year smaller buds
spur shot
if the internodes dont get very big then the shoots willl be spur shoots
epicormic shots
shoots on the bark come out when the tree is injured
excurrent branching can somitmes be a juvinelle trait
flat and angle not long, forster like this kidn of bracnhginb ecuase most of the wood is in the main stem
decurrent branching
in angio sperms, lateral buds and terminal buds grow into longer shoots
fastigate branching
lombardy popular cyporess
grand fir / copice shoots
get more light and heat so they produce epicomic shoots, when shoots comes form the base of a stump they are call
crooked wood
the effect of insects on tree form
sitka spruce weevle, whtie pine weevle, dead leader on tree
shade tolderance effecticing tree form
true fir is more shade tolderant, than larch, which is shade intolerant
what are roots for
uptake of goodies nureints water anchorage support tap root, goes straight down very very deep, doug pine lateral roots come off the tap roots, flat rooting and deep rooting
sources and sinkgs
sinks were goodies abourbed shoots are more imporatnt in may and june, roots that go exploring never get cambuim and only last very short teme ephemeral small feeling roots
bottom roots
for uptake of neutrince and water
feeding root system
very small grow long dont last ephermaeral near the top were the nutrince is decomposing matter and oxygen
first root and out of seed tap root
gorws down 3 or 4 seasosn
flat root system
doesnt go down farm, spread litearly,
but swell
swelling at the bottom of the stem wood, usually wehre flat roots are concerned.
roots shallow soil, topics, butresses
trees that grow up salt water, tropics problem no oxygen, proejction from roots hat is stuck up out of water, brings oxygen to roots, calle knees)
whats the problem with concrete
paving over, drowns roots, prevents oxygen getting to roots, leading a cause of death of trees in city.
when roots grow
shot growth phanized over root growth, puts all envgery toward shoot growth. roots stop in may june for root growth
source of nuetirnce (photosynthesis) were the food ocme froms
where nuetrints go (reproduction) were the food gets consumed shoots + roots in may june shoot gowrth is mor eimporant most imporant sink in paklnts and humans reproduction 30-40% go to it
best time to repalnt and transprot trees
fall, soil is warm and lots of water.
lineas classfication system
1) uses dead langauges 2) binomial system, always two words 3) first part of name old world pinus second part desciptor comes after genus than after desciptor somtime ssomone who finds it. linnea borealis l twin flower o Piceasitchensis – Alaskian Spruce o Acer macrophyllumPursh. – Big leaf maple o Alnusrubra Bong. – Red Alder
what does a douglas fir need
it likes sunlight, juvenile trait of douglas fir; more shade tolerant than adult douglas soil need to be mois and well drained for douglas, with plenty nuetirns douglas trees like mineral soil not organic soil mintera soil comes form landslide volcanic eruptions fires and earthquakes
examples of shade demanding, shaded tolerant, and shade intolleran t
yew, hemlock , douglas
carl linneas vs common names
common: species then genus, douglas fir tremblng aspen, can also be descriptive, person location, look alike carl lineaus binomial genus, species, founder pinus cedrus

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