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sceince practitioner
consumer of sceince, creator of science, evaluator of science
DSM changes over
changes over, sceintific factors, motives persoatice taht are dominant, poltiacl factors
clinical description
combination of behvoirs thoughs and feelings that make up a disroder
presenting problem
whatever the persona complains about or comes to see about
spiritual model
supernatural forces that are not in your control but affect yoru psycholgicla health
how would they get a wtich to confess
confession classical
witch pricking
trail by water.

how did oringal biolgical models treat stress and meloncoly
rest and realzaxation
weak psyche
weak nerves
early biolgical model cure for neurosis
rest cure
hostipalized custodiation
neurosis cure early biolgical models
rest cure
random surgical extraction
early 20th centuary

manfred sakel, insulin shock thearpy
medulla, chemially induced siezure to reduce epilsiepse

cherellit and bini, ETC, depression helper


freedman and wats

heize leihman, hallucinations and agression

french school

object realtions
refering to young children and how they incoorpate imporant people into their lives shapes their perceiton of the word
ego psychology
the way teh defensive reacitons of the ego, detemrine oru behvoira nd how we react to the wrold

ego defifnciies, lack of defence mechaimsims to proerply vent the ids concerns

lack of parcital tools to deal with intrapsychic contlicts

interpersonal dynamic theory
the most effective treatment for deprssion looks at interpersonal paters show that the way we realale to outher people, is often refelcted by what we have leared from family reactions and dearly shcools expeinceses.

focal interperonal theroy
acts of self
acts of outhers towrds self
acts of self towards self.

gestalt therapy
being able to idenitfy what your desires are,also trying to be postive creative and productive.
cognative behvoiral model general
look at cognative and social factors and how they interact and how these effects oour learning
tishner self instructional training
instrospection, conditiojing give oyu a stimulus and ask you to talk about your feelings after the stimulus
mary cover jones
extrinction of phobia using conditioning
behavoiral therapy verse bevhoiral modeification
behvoiraly therapy
classical conditioning
graduated expsoure, systematic desensitization, exposure and responce prevention, aversion therapy flooding.

behvoiral modification
operant conditioing principles

conduct disroders
social anxiety


behvoiral therapy vers bevoural modification
behvoiraly thearpy
classical condiitoning
graduated expsoure
systematic desensitaitoin
exposure and responce prevention
aversion therapy

behvoiral modfiication
operant conditioning
some of psychopathology is due to maladaptive learniend behvoirs

behvoiral activaitin
social skill training
contingency based mangment tenciques

becks cognative therapy for depression
its not a mood disorder its a thought disrodser, people grow up developong biasses in the way the interpret the world, have interpet things in a negative way, people are inadeqaute


ellis rational emtoive thearpy
not event or isutaotn its your perosnal intepraiton of the event that detmerines negative emtions
contemporary modesl of psychopathology
multiple processes contirbute to psycopathology
psycolgical elaring proceses
interperoanl social and cultural effects

1. Enriched environments prevent the expression of genetically-mediated disorders
- Enriched environments overcome genetically mediated memory deficiency in rats
- Genetically identical mice raised in different labs (under exactly same conditions) performed differently on standardized tests – very small differences led to different performance, this suggests that the environment can limit genetic potential or overcome genetic deficiencies

2. Parenting styles affect genetic expression of emotion
Cross-fostering studies
a. Easily stressed rat pups raised by calm mothers grew up calm
b. Genetically reactive monkeys reared by calm mothers grew up calm and raised their own offspring the same way
c. Children of schizophrenic parents raised by functional family did not develop psychological disorders. Children raised by dysfunctional families did.

3. Traumatic early life experiences have been shown to alter neurochemical activity
a. Early stressful experiences produce ongoing deficits in serotonin in genetically susceptible primates
b. Rats exposed to uncontrollable stress (shock) showed chronic activation of corticotrophin-releasing factor
c. Adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse display changes in the hippocampus

contemproary biolgical perspectives
brain structure and fucntion
neurotranssmitter functions

run though brain antomogy in the morning ! lecutre slide

cognative perspective
empahsies how peopel make sence of their expeinces, hwo they transfer cues into information

cognative processes incldue
attention - internal external information
interpreation- make sence of events
meory - what you remember

cognative behvoiral treamtnes
identify beleifs preidciton, automatic throuhgs
behvoiral experiemtns
through monitoring
modify attention focuses, teaching them to focus thier shti on postive shti

culturel and interpersonal factors

social realtionship
vood culture

signs and sympotms of behovir
clinical assemsnt
the systematic evaltion of biolgical psycolgial and soical facors of person who we think has a disrdoer
clinical interive generals
cognative proceses
observation tenciques
biolgical tets
life reocreds

anxity disroder interview shedule
this interview scheduel the lcincia first ask if the aptin si bothere by thoughts or impluses and currently feeligns dreiven to repate some behovr or thougths over and over again
behvoiral assemsnt
the process using direct observation test foramlly iniduval thoguha nd feelign and bhefoir in a speic situaton or cotnexts
traget behvoirs: are identified and observed with the goal of detemring the factors that infleunce theose behvoris
deviation form the mean
lie scale
defensiceness cale
cannot say scale
sexitrs and rasits
indivual repsonces do nto matter

lurai nebarask nuerspychogally batery
strength of grip
tacticle preromfance
memroy skills d
deticign cognative defieicneis

disticnt biolgical cause
distnict critrea
emil kreplin

in which we get a global assesment of fucntioning
scale rating on a number of vraibles
profile of emtional fucntioning

how many scales ?

protitypical apporach
idenitifes certian esential characteristics of a enitsy so you can classify in a dicotomous manner but alos allows for some leiway, becuase you dont need all the conditons

diagnosistic accuracy

dsm before 1980
fruedian models, lacked descriptive calirity, no inter rater relaiblity

moved away from freudian towards observabloe behvoira
much more sceintific
anxiety had its own category now

polotically motivated
arbitary deifntions, what consititues panic disroders
inter rater relaiblity still ow for disorders such as somatoform

dsm 4

multi axal
more empahiss on inter rater relaiblity
no longer a distniction between orgnaic and psycoligcal disroders
social and envormental factors on axis 4
moer speicfic

relaiblity for validity

defines any fact occuring in the study that makes the resuts uninterpetable
statisical verse clincal signfiacne
now used to detemrien the effeects of the indpendant varible ont he dependant varible and the likelihood that this happend by chance

sitsticaly signfiacnt may not be signifcant clincialy becuase it does tnot crate a dramtic enough or desraible enoguh effect ie side effects
social validity: asking indivudal reinds and family how the progess of the patient is giong

patient uniformity myth: deriving succees fo atreatment outomces by divation formt eh mean need ot take iniduval storeis of peitns into account or you will make erroneous generalizations

behvoiral assemsnt itnerview
focus on here and now
tend to be direct and minmal inferential
purpsoe is to identify problematic bheoirs and sitaitons
formal and informal
observers clincain or signfiacnt outhers
life lab clinic
streng objetive looking at concre behvoirs
weakness reacitivty

why diagnosis
summarize infomration
symptom pattern etology
treamtent responce
professional communcaiton
scientitiic study

case study pros cons
descripe rare pheonomin
try otu experimantal treamtn
soruces of ideas.

experiemter bais

single case study

price measurimgnet
talor treamnt
unsual case

must have stable bheroir

correaltional methods
when the clnical disrodsdeer cannot be mnaipuatled
3rd varibles direcltionaly
correlation not cuasaiton.

life records
types school,gradueate dorpot
occupational employment job loss


erros in recordds
incomplete rreocds

phsiolgical assemsnt
emg mustcle tension used to study headaches

penail cimrucvance vaginal lubriation


physiolgical assemnt
eeg , gsr, emg
sexual arousal, penail cirmcumfrence

disorders invovlign strong emtional component
sexual dysfunction, sleep disroders

objectrive less succesible to control

affected by may factors
diet rest exerize time of day , temparutre.

gastalt therapy
estalt therapy focuses more on process (what is actually happening), rather than content (what is being talked about). The emphasis is on what is being done, thought and felt at the present moment, rather than on what was, might be, could be, or should have been. Gestalt therapy is a method of awareness practice, by which perceiving, feeling, and acting are understood to be separate from interpreting, explaining and judging. This distinction between direct experience, and indirect or secondary interpretation, is developed in the process of therapy. The client learns to become aware of what they are doing and how they can change. By becoming aware of, and transforming their process of being, they develop self acceptance and the ability to experience more in the "now" without as much interference from psychological baggage of the past.

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