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Lateral ventricles (=ventricles I and II) have what?
anterior, posterior and temporal horns
What are located in the horns of the lateral ventricles?
choroid plexus,clusters of capillaries pia mater and a layer of ependymal cells
choroid plexus does what?
It is a CSF-secreting tissue
Septum pellucidum does what?
it separates the latral ventricles and it is under the corpus callosum
What happens when there is continuous secetion of CSF?
leads to a buildup of hydrostatic pressure within the closed space of the ventricles, flowing from the lateral ventricles, through the Foramen of Monro into the third ventricle
Posteriorly the third ventricle is continuous with what?
the cerebral aqueduct (acqueduct of Sylvius).
The aqueduct in turn is continuous with ?
the fourth ventricle of the pons and medulla.
The fourth ventricle is continuous with
the microscopically tiny central canal of the caudal medulla and the spinal cord
What is the role of CSF? and where does it finally enter into?
It bathes the surface of the brain in the subarachnoid space, and finally enters into the blood of the dural sinuses, site of lowest pressure in the system.
Spinal Cord
role of arachnoid granulations?
they are small whittish processes that are enlarged villi of the arachnoid membrane and they let the CSF move to the superior saggital sinus
4th ventricle is enclosed by what?
cerebellum and pons
What is the TECTUM?
The roof of the midbrain that occurs as the brainstem exits the foramen magnum
The brainstem includes?
The diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon and myelencephalon).
Mesencephalon is important for?
Reflex functions
The myelencephalon (=medulla) is critical for
The ventral surface of the CNS, with both hemispheres shows what?
The olfactory and important portions of the visual system and the cranial nerves (lateral view too)
What are the most prominent identifying feature of the midbrain?
The four little mounds(colliculi) of the midbrain that are visible on the medial, lateral and dorsal views.
What are sulci(singular, sulcus)?
The grooves that are deep infoldings and they are seen with the Telencephalon
What are called gyri(singular, gyrus)?
The exposed folds, which consist of millions of nerve cell bodies and are seen with the telencephalon
What is the corpus callosum?
The major axonal connections between the lobes of the two hemispheres
What is the internal capsule?
It is between the brainstem and the telencephalon
What are the inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculi ?
They are between the lobes of a single hemisphere and they are U-fibers and long association bundles
What is the basal ganglia?
They are the subcortical nuclei of gray matter within the telencephalon
What are three structures if the basal ganglia?
Caudate nucleus
Globus pallidus
What is the cerebral cortex?
The surface layer of gray matter of the cerebrum that fxns in coordination of motor and sensory info.
The cues that tell you a slice is in the parasaggital plane?
The temporal lobe at the bottom pointing anteriorly and forming the floor of the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle; the frontal and occipital pole; a central core of the structures of the diencephalon; and the subcortical structures of the telencephalon, and everything surrounded by rim of cortex with gyri and sulci.
Role of the internal capsule in the parasaggital plane?
The internal capsule separates the caudate nucleus from the putamen, globus pallidus and thalamus.
Due to histological structure,difference btw the hippocampus and amygdala classification?
hippocampus is classified as cortex (a primitive kind) while the amygdala is a subcortical structure.
What are the 5 lobes of the TELENCEPHALON?
Frontal lobe, Parietal lobe, Occipital lobe, Temporal lobe, and Limbic lobe
Name 4 structures in the Frontal Lobe
1.Central Sulcus
2.Precentral Gyrus
3. Superior, Middle and Inferior Frontal Gyri
4. Broca’s Speech Area
2 Structures in Parietal Lobe
Postcentral Gyrus
Wernicke’s Speech Area
2 structures in Occipital Lobe
Calcarine Sulcus
Primary Visual Cortex
4 structures Temporal Lobe
1. Lateral (Sylvian) Fissure
2. Superior Temporal Sulcus
3. Superior Temporal Gyrus
4. Middle and Inferior Temporal Gyri
3 Structures of Limbic Lobe
Cingulate Gyrus
Parahippocampal Gyrus
Role of the lateral fissure?
It separates the temporal lobe ventrally from the more dorsal frontal and parietal lobes.
What is the deep central sulcus?
It is the boundary between frontal and parietal lobes.
What is often used as a marker between occipital and temporal lobes?
The preoccipital notch
Broca’s area is used for?
It is important in the production of written and spoken language.
What is Broca's aphasia?
inability to speak or to organize the muscular movements of speech
What is Wernicke's area?
it is located in the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus and it plays a role in the comphrension of language
The brainstem is subdivided into?
1. The midbrain, which is continuous with the diencephalon;
2. The pons;
3. And the medulla, which is continuous with the spinal cord.
Describe the limbic lobe
it is a "C" shaped structure of the medial hemispheric surface that sorrounds the core of the brain
Describe the cingulate gyrus
lies directly above the corpus callosum
1. Thalamus
2. Hypothalamus, Including Mamillary Bodies
3. Cranial Nerve II: Optic Nerve, Chiasm and Tract
4. Third Ventricle
1. Tectum
Superior Colliculus
Inferior Colliculus
2. Tegmentum
3. Cerebral Peduncles
4. Cranial Nerves III and IV
5. Cerebral Aqueduct (=Aqueduct of Sylvius)
What is the significance of substantia Nigra?
it is a layer of deeply pigmented gray matter in the midbrain that has cell bodies of a tract of dopamine proucing nerve cells and its secretions are deficient in Parkinson's disease.
1. Pons
2. Cerebellum
3. Cranial Nerves V, VI, VII
Where is the location of the cerebellum?
it is over the 4th ventricle
1. Fourth Ventricle
2. Pyramidal Tracts (aka pyramids)
3. Inferior Olive
4. Cranial Nerves VIII, IX, X and XII
Fasciculus Cuneatus?
either of a pair of nerve tracts of the spinal cord that carry nerve fibers from the upper parts of the body
Fasciculus Gracilis?
either of a pair of nerve tracts of the spinal cord that carry nerve fibers from the lower parts of the body

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