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Animal F*cking science 121


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Which livestock species consume the lowest amount of non-human edible feedstuffs?
Swine and Poultry
One measure of efficiency in animal production is feed conversion. What two variables are needed to determine feed conversion?
Weaning weight and feed consumption
In Oregon, which animal commodity listed has the lowest production value?
What type of organisms does animal science deal with?
Livestock and poultry
Approximately what amount of protein in the average human diet is from animal sources?
1/3 of the diet
If farmers are so efficient why are there still starving people in some regions of the world?
Poor food distribution
In what sense are cattle more efficient than swine?
They can consume lower quality feeds
What is responsible for the increasing demand of animal products?
Increasing: population, urbanization, incomes
Most domestic cattle came from what wild species?
Auroch and Celtic Ox
What does it mean when cattle are polled?
It means that the animal naturally lacks horns
What changes when beef cattle are moved to the feed lot?
The animals are kept in confined areas, concentrates are added to their feed
Which of the following breeds of cattle would tend to be more heat tolerant?
Which of the following grades of beef would contain the least amount of fat:


Dehorning is often performed on what type of cattle?
Any non-polled cattle
Most often, veal is produced from?
Bull calfs
What are the primary areas of beef production?
Cow/calf, stocker and feedlot
When were cattle domesticated?
Which of the following species has the lowest normal fecundity:

This species is mostly resistant to heat, disease and parasites:

To which taxonomic group do cattle belong?
What conflict interrupted the cattle drives?
The Civil War
During the cattle drives, how were cattle transported from Kansas to the East?
What is ADG?
Average Daily Gain
What is Creep feed?
First feed that is fed while still nursing or on milk replacer
What is EPD?
Expected Progeny Difference
What is a freemartin?
Sterile female that has a fraternal twin of a bull calf
What is the primary product in the US that is obtained from goats?
Ewes are stimulated in to estrus cycling by photoperiod. What time of the year does estrous cycling typically begin in sheep?
What method is most commonly used to dock sheep tails?
How is heat determined in sheep?
A teaser ram is needed
What is a Hank?
A unit of yarn
\"Range wars\"?
Were the disagreements between sheep and cattle ranchers
Sheep numbers decreased during the wars of the early to mid 1900\'s. T/F?
The top sheep production state is:
Australia produces the largest amount of wool. T/F?
A sheep milk breed is:
East Friesian
Which breed of sheep has hair not wool?
Which of these goat breeds is used for primarily milk production:

Which breed of goat does not have external ears?
Mohair comes from
Angora goats
A castrated male pig is called a wether. T/F?
False. Barrow
What is a 175 pound market swine properly called?
Where were swine first domesticated?
Southeast Asia
To which taxonomic group do swine belong?
Pigs that became feral in the Southeastern part of the United States were brought to the new world by which explorer?
De Soto
A beef cow will consume what percent of her body weight per day?
What is the approximate gestation length of a beef cow?
283 days
What is the blood grading system used for in wool evaluation?
Evaluates the quality of wool based on breed and fiber type
Deficiency of which of the fallowing nutrients is associated with White Muscle Disease in sheep?
Which of the following is a relatively common use for today\'s wool besides garments:
Industrial lubricant?

In Oregon, like the US, the dairy industry is slowly relocating to a different region. In Oregon, which direction is the dairy industry moving?
Following parturition, dairy bull calves are usually sold. In general, about how long do these calves remain on the dairy farm before sale?
Embryo transfer has recently become common in the dairy industry. T/F?
How is mastitis identified?
Cell counts in milk
Which type of milking parlor design is the least efficient based on the amount of walking by the milker?
Dairy cattle were developed from a different domestication event than Beef Cattle. T/F?
Which of the following processes stops the milk fat from separating after bottling?
When considering dairy cattle feeding, what is dry matter intake?
The total amount of feed minus the water consumed per day
Which dairy breed that we discussed is also considered a beef breed?
Which two Western states have shown dramatic increase in dairy production in recent years?
Idaho and New Mexico
Which two breeds are part of the OSU Dairy\'s management model?
Holstein and Jersey
The gestation length for swine is how long?
3 months, 3 weeks and 3 days
\"Ringing\" in swine is done to prevent what?
Most modern commercial hogs have been selected for what particular body type?
Meat type
In general, which region of the world has the highest per capita consumption of pork?
What is the most common method of identification markings used in swine?
Ear notching
Which of the following is not a typical reason for docking tails in swine:
Tail biting?
Requirement at some auctions?

Typically, castration is performed on piglets that are only a few weeks old. Older boars that are destined for slaughter are also castrated for what reason?
Reduced boar taint
\"Hand breeding\" in swine is...?
Artificial insemination
When feeding swine, as the pigs get older the protein level in the feed:
Is removed completely?
Remains unchanged?

Early weaning in swine typically occurs when?
3 weeks of age
Which of the following horse breeds are not considered \"hot blooded\":
Quarter Horses?

Horses are somewhat seasonal. When breeding, what time of the year will give the best results?
Where did the original domestication of the horse occur?
Central Asia
Which horses are most closely associated with pulling beer wagons?
What is a pony?
A small horse
What determines whether a female horse is a filly or a mare?
Where did the Indian tribes of the North American West get their horses?
Feral horses brought from Spain by the Spanish explorers
Which of the following natural markings is commonly used to identify horses?
Hoof prints?
Nose prints?
Ear shape?
Hair whorls?

Hair whorls
Buckskin and Dun horse color patterns are very similar. What is the primary difference?
Dun has a dorsal stripe
Standardbreds are race horses. What are the two types of these horses?
Pacers and Trotters
What advantages do traditional livestock producers have over non-traditional production?
Established market streams, current acceptance by consumers and research base to draw from
Which of the following is not usually a primary consideration of most niche market consumers?
Product perceived to be better?
Product perceived to be more nutritious?
Exotic nature of the product?

Which of the following are probably the most controversial products of the rabbit industry?
Meat and fur?
Fur and research?
Meat and exhibition?
Exhibition and pets?

Fur and research
What is a major reason for the increased interest in Aquaculture in the last three decades?
Fishing had reached max sustainable yield
Which of the following would NOT be considered a non-traditional product:
Rabbit meat?
Organic milk?
Foster Farms chicken?
Tilapia fillets?

Foster Farms chicken
A young male chicken is called a...?
Which of the following species of poultry has the shortest incubation period?

What is the basic breeding method that was described in class and used routinely by the poultry industry?
Line breeding
When the hunter/gather people first domesticated chickens from a wild species, what was the most probable reason for doing this?
Because of their fighting ability
What happens to fertile chicken eggs, after laying, are stored for 7 days before incubating?
They will hatch normally
From what reason of the world were chickens domesticated?
Southeast Asia
When brooding chickens, supplemental heat is required for about how long?
4-6 weeks
James Dryden was a poultry researcher in the early 20th century at what is now OSU. What important work did he do?
Used genetic selection to improve egg number
Which of the following is correct concerning turkey breeding:

Breeders maintain a ratio of 1 male to 10-12 females?
Breeders maintain a ratio of 1 male to 3-4 females?
Turkeys are usually pair mated?
Breeders use Artificial Insemination?
Breeders use Artificial Insemination
Sexual maturity marks the beginning of estrus cycling in the following livestock except:
Dairy cattle?

What species of livestock is \"phase feeding\" used in their management?
Swine and Poultry
Which of the following species does not have a feral type:
They all have feral types?

Which species has a North American origin?
Castration is a common management technique for young male livestock. Which species is not commonly castrated?
Oregon State University, which began in 1868 under the name Oregon Agricultural College, got it\'s start from which law passed by the US Congress?
Morrill Act
Which livestock species consume the most highest amount of non-human edible feedstuffs?
Cattle and Sheep
One measure of efficiency in animal production is feed conversion. What two variables are needed to determine feed conversion?
Feed consumed and weight gain
Worldwide, which animal species is produced in the highest numbers?
Spring calving in beef cattle is accomplished for what reason?
Lush growing pastures are available
What does it mean when cattle are not polled?
It means that the animal has horns
What management practice is almost exclusively done to reduce the hazards of cattle to producers or to other cattle?
Early weaning of beef calves usually occurs when?
between about 35 days and 5 months of age
Age is an important factor to determine when to breed beef cattle heifers. What else is necessary for optimal conception and birth of calves from these heifers?
When weight reaches about 65% of expected adult weight
The primary reason for finishing cattle in feedlots is to...?
Provide consumers with higher quality (grade) beef
Castrating bull calves is done for what purpose?
To increase the quality of meat
What was the purpose of crossing the Bos indicus type cattle into the European breeds?
To improve disease and parasite resistance and improve heat tolerance
Lamb is the primary human food product of the sheep industry, what is the secondary food product from sheep?
Cheese from sheep milk
The age at harvest for a typical market lamb is...?
6-9 months
Which wool grading system is based on the percentage of sheep breed genetics?
Blood System
A castrated bull with horns that is over 30 months old is properly called what?
An oxen
Goats are thought to have been domesticated from what species?
Bozoar Goats
What sized operations are the most numerous in the beef cattle industry?
1 to 49 head
Which beef breed was nearly extinct until a federal program was established in the 1920\'s to make sure it survived?
What method is mos commonly used to castrate bull calves or ram lambs?
Greasy wool is shorn wool before cleaning. Approximately what percentage of the greasy wool is still available for sale following cleaning?
Steer and barrow are terms which have the same meaning in Cattle and Swine. Which term has the same meaning with Sheep and Goats?
What is the difference between a pig and a hog?
They are different weights
During typical commercial production of poultry, birds from which production class are moved to new facilities during their growth or production?
White egg layers, Brown egg layers, Turkey Hens and Turkey Toms
Which of the following species has the shortest incubation period?
Japanese Quail?

Which dairy breed has the highest milk test?
In class, information was given to show some of the differences between the dairy industry in the late 1920\'s and today. Which of the following is an incorrect statement:
Average production from individual cows has remained fairly constant?
All of the above
Based on state rankings of dairy herds, which states have shown dramatic increases in production?
Idaho and New Mexico
First calf heifers are usually first to be milked during a milking session for what reason?
First time milkers have lower possibility of mastitis
A young female pig is called what?
A gilt
Swine were first domesticated from wild bigs found in which region of the world?
Southeast Asia
When will a sow show signs of heat?
4-5 months of age
In normal swine management, weaning of piglets occurs how long after a sow farrows?
2-5 weeks
The 1890\'s through the 1920\'s in the US was considered the Golden Age of horses...Why?
The population of horses was highest at that time
When considering horses, which of the following is considered a color breed?
Pinto, Appaloosa, Palomino
What is the origin of the horses use by the Indian tribes of the North American West?
Feral horses brought from Spain by the Spanish explorers
What is boar taint?
Off smelling meat from processing intact male hogs
For efficient breeding of dairy cows, breeding should occur at what point?
2 to 3 weeks after parturition
Which management methods could make a traditional animal product into a non-traditional animal product?
Organic production, Free range production and Kosher processing methods
Which of the following species that we have discussed has the highest normal fecundity?
During the lactation cycle, what happens to the body weight of the dairy cow?
Declines early and increases late in the cycle
Which of the following is NOT used to class a product or species as \"Non-traditional\":
Low production numbers?
Original supply was wild caught?
High price?
Low acceptance by the average consumer?

High price
In which two species do producers routinely dock tails?
Sheep and Swine
The bulk of rabbit consumption is found in what region?
In aquaculture, what is Double Cropping management?
Two different species are raised in the same facilities simultaneously
Male accessory sex glands include all but:
Prostate gland?
Cowper\'s gland?
Vas deferens?

The oviduct functions as what?
Site of fertilization
What is an ectopic pregnancy?
A site where embryonic development is not supposed to occur
What types of the uterus did we discuss in class?
Duplex, bicornuate, simplex, bipartite
What hormone makes the cervix remain closed during pregnancy?
The uterus functions for all BUT...
The site of the majority of embryonic development?
Placental development?
Hormone production?
Sperm cell transport?

Hormone production
Which of the following is lacking in avian male reproductive anatomy compared to the mammal?
Vas deferens?
Prostate gland?

Roughages are what?
Moderate to low in energy and digestibility
Dietary carbohydrates must be converted to what for them to be absorbed by monogastric?
In the calculation to determine metabolizable energy, which of the following is subtracted from goss energy:
Body tissue?

When an amino acid or fatty acid are said to be Non-Essential, that means they are what?
Not needed in the diet, required by the organism for normal function, and are synthesized during metabolism.
When ruminants chew cud, they are actually doing what?
Making the particle size smaller so microbes can break down the cellulose
During most of the cell cycle of an intestinal lining cell, the DNA does what?
Condenses in the form of chromosomes
Which vitamin was considered the \"Animal Manure Factor\" before it was discovered as a vitamin?
Vitamin B12
Which common vitamin is NOT required in the diet of livestock?
Vitamin C
Animal clones have become a possible, but rare, method of reproduction in livestock. What was the method of cloning that we discussed in class?
Using the nucleus of a somatic cell to substitute for the sperm cell
In birds, which parent will determine the sex of it\'s offspring?
The parent that has the homogametic sex
What cellular process allows for maintaining of the chromosome dumber in an animal specie from one generation to the next?
What is the function of the scrotum?
Protection and thermoregulation of the testis
What happens when alleles of a trait are co-dominant?
The heterozygous individual expresses both traits
What happens when the allele of a trait is incompletely dominant?
The heterozygous individual is intermediate between the recessive and dominant
Gregor Mendel was the first to understand the science of genetics. Working with pea planst, he developed what two fundamental laws of genetics?
Law of Segregation and Independent Assortment
William Bateson, working in about 1902, found that Mendel\'s laws applied to animals by studying which species?
Most of the genetic material in livestock is found in what structure?
Cell nucleus
What is a gene?
A section of DNA
Normal genes have how many copies in each individual?
Sex-linked genes have how many copies in each heterogametic individual?
Normally, chromosomes are found in:

What is the amount of genetic material found in a sperm cell?
Half the amount found in a stomach lining cell
Single gene traits are those that are what?
Either obviously present or not
In the genetic relationship called complete dominance, the offspring that are heterozygous will appear how?
The same as the dominant case
Chromosomes become visible when?
When cells are dividing
Genetic traits are considered \"quantitative\" when?
The traits are variable in the population
Name a layer that surrounds the oocyte?
Zona pellucida
Into how many sections are spermatozoa divided?
3: Head, mid piece and tail
A blastocyst hatches at about when?
10 days
What does the acid detergent fiber process measure?
Cellulose and lignin
What does Kjeldahl measure?
Crude protein
You can use the Pearson Square to balance a ration for what?
Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) is a measure of what?
When crossing two individuals that are both homozygous for a particular allele, that trait will be expressed in what?
All of the offspring from that pair
Heterosis is a genetic effect that occurs following what?
Crossing different genetic lines
Chromosome number in animals is determined by what?
Amount of DNA in each cell
When considering \"essential\" and \"non-essential\" amino acids in monogastric diets, which of the following is true concerning the ESSENTIAL amino acids:
They are not a required nutrient?
They are not required in the diet?
They are needed only
They are required in the diet
Which vitamin listed below is considered water soluble:
Vitamin A?
Vitamin D?
Vitamin B12?
Vitamin K?

Vitamin B12
Which nutrient is the most important?
In a horse\'s digestive tract, cellulose is broken down in which section?
Large intestine
Based on their nutrition strategy, cattle are what?

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