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ANTH 11 Final


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Which of the following is the best definition of archaeology?
A) the interpretation of past people's thoughts & ideas
B) the scientific study of past peoples through their material remains
C) scientific study of people
D) interpretation of pas
B) The scientific study of past peoples through their material remains
The calibration of radiocarbon years to true years is made possible by exhaustive dating of:
A) varves
B) tree rings
C) deep sea cores
D) bones of known age
E) tombstones

Tree Rings
The study of how we know the things we know is referred to as:
A) empiricism
B) scholasticism
C) pseudoarchaeology
D) the scientific method
E) epistemology

To be regarded as scientific, a theory must:
A) be accepted as true by scientists
B) be provable
C) stand the test of time
D) to be able to produce testable hypotheses
E) be scientifically interpretive

be able to produce testable hypotheses
The half life of a radioactive isotope is:
A) time it takes for half the radioactive material to form
B) time it takes for half the atoms to be measured in the lab
C) time it takes for half any quantity of the atoms to decay
D) None of the abo
C) the time it takes for half of any quantity of the atoms to decay
Geologists have analyzed____, like uranium 255 to reach estimate of approximately 4.6 billion yrs for earth's age.
A) tree rings
B) atomic weights
C) radioactive isotopes
D) younger dryas
E) ogham stones

radioactive isotopes
Fundamental element of cultural evolution (like gene of bio evolution) is:
A) varve
B) meme
C) isotope
D) tribe
E) ethnic group

Modern country that covers greatest geographical expanse in north america is:
A) mexico
C) canada
D) brazil
E) russia

Which of the following ISN'T a scientific goal of modern archaeology?
A) reconstruction of past lifeways
B) recovery, preservation, description of remains
C) reconstructing interactions between humans & dinosaurs
D) decipherment of culture his
C) reconstructing interactions between humans & dinosaurs
Primary difference between bio evolution & cultural evolution is that:
A) cultural evolution is necessarily slower than bio
B)With cultural evolution, the local of change is individual
C) cultural evolution ceased w/emergence biologically modern
E) acquired cultural traits can be transmitted from parents to offspring
Clovis material culture is most easily distinguished from most other paleoindian complexes by:
A) wide array of side & end scrapers
B) highly distinctive fluted projectile points
C) elaborate works of cave art
D) association w/extinct animals<
B) highly distinctive fluted projectile points
The nenana complex is found in:
A) southwest US, parts of north MX
C) NM and AZ
D) central AK
E) majority of lower 48 states of US

central AK
early remains & radiocarbon dates from this site support theory of early spread of maritime people south along pacific coast:
A) meadowcroft
B) monte verde
C) mesa
D) cactus hill
E) topper

monte verde
Paleoindians were definitely established in north America by:
A) 17,300 BCE
B) 11,100 BCE
C) 15,000 BCE
D) 19,500 BCE
E) 24,000 BCE

11,100 BCE
The first folson point to be covered in NM was associated w/the bones of which animal:
A) giant short-faced bear
B) a sabertooth cat
C)a mastadon
D) a mammoth
E) an extinct form of bison

NOT a mastadon
Which of the following is closest to the most widely accepted date for the first major migration into north america?
A) 160,000 BP
B) 25,000 BP
C) 35,000 BP
D) 1,000 BP
E) 15,000 BP

15,000 BP
Which of the following is not a potential pre-clovis site?
A) monte verde
B) cactus hill
C) topper
D) meadowcroft
E) blackwater draw

blackwater draw
Pennsylvania's Meadowcroft rock shelter might have human remains as old as 14,225 BP (uncalibrated) but some archaeologists argue that____?
A) radiocarbon dating is never reliable
B) the samples might've been contaminated by coal
C) the site was
the samples might have been contaminated by coal
Clovis complex material has been found:
A) mainly in canada
B) to be mostly limited to the great plains & the american southwest
C) across the lower 48 states, north MX, parts of Canada
D) only in alaska
E) from canada to the southern tip o
C) across the lower 48 states, northern mexico, and parts of canda
What was the abstract social unit that probably served as the local context for paleoindians?
B) bunch
C) horde
D) connubium
E) chiefdom

Throughout the holocene, stable cimatic conditions kept north american forests basically pristine.

Paul Martin's hypothesis to explain the extinction of megafauna states that:
A) human hunters were primarily responsible to extinctions
B) human settlers brought viruses which mutated into strains that were lethal for the endemic mammalian species
human hunters were primarily responsible for extinctions
Which of the following is NOT a desirable characteristic of an animal to be domesticated?
A) grow quickly to adulthood
B) weigh more than 100 kg (212 pounds)
C) breed well in captivity
D) aren't subject to fits of panic
E) are comfortable i
weight more than 100 kg (212 pounds)
Monumental constructions in pre-columbian north america:
A) is always associated only with sedentary communities relying agriculture for subsistence
B) is pseudo-archaeological fiction
C) occured only last few centuries before the voyage of colum
occured as early as 3400 BCE in the form of large earthen mounds
Which of the following is not a plant initially domesticated in north or meso-america?
A) maize
B) tomato
C) beans
D) squash
E) sunflwer

B) tomato
Below the threshold number of ___ human pop are often too unstable to survive in the long run:
A) 50
B) 1000
C) 100
D) 5000
E) 500

E) 500
Early archaic cultures began replacing late paleoindian cultures at around:
A) 8000 cal BCE
B) 12,000 cal BCE
C) 1,000 cal BCE
D) 9,500 cal BCE
E) 5,500 cal BCE

9,500 cal BCE
In how many different regions of the world did agriculture develop independently?
A) 13
B) 42
C) 2
D) 7
E) 3

3 is NOT right
Olmec relied on ____ or "swidden" agriculture. Also called:
A) formative
B) mixed
C) plow
D) industrialized
E) slash & burn

slash and burn
Domestication of plants in the eastern woodlands peroid set the stage for:
A) widespread trade in both raw materials & finished products as well as construction of earthworks
B) construction of earthworks
C) animal domestication
D) widespread
widespread trade in both raw mats & finished products as well as the constructions of earthworks
which of the following is NOT true of moundbuilder mythology:
A)american indians themselves didn't want euroamericans to know the mounds were built by native american ancestors for fear that this would cause reprisal
B) supposed lost race of moundbu
A) american indians themselves didn't want euroamericans to know that the mounds had been built by native american ancestors for fear this would cause reprisal
Adena culture tubular pipes were used for which of the following?
A) they werent used for smoking at all, they're actually ceremonial tubes used during some now forgotten ritual
B) tesointe, a mexican grass which spread northward around 400 CE
nicotiana rustica, a native tobacco which spread northward from south america, or through the antilles
Who's sometimes considered the father of american archaeology because of the meticulous excavations he conducted in VA?
A) Thomas Jefferson
B) George Washington
C) Ephraim Squier
D) E.H. Davis
E) James Griffin

Thomas Jefferson
Exotic mats in Adena-Hopewell graves don't usually include:
A) copper from upper great lakes
B) mica from south app
C) marine shell from gulf of MX
D) flint & chalcedony from IL, IN, & ND
E) obsidian from mesoamerica

Obsidian from mesoamerica
Which of the following isn't true of burial mounds:
A) typically built rapidly
B) burial mound construction is nearly worldwide phenomenon
C) mound building invented in old world, spread to new world through poineering pop around 11,500 BCE
Mound building was invented in the old world and spread to the new world through pioneering pop around 11,500 BCE
Which of the following are very early earthwork complexes?
A) Watson Brake & poverty point
B) watson brake & newark
C) mound city & newark
D) hopewell & adena
E) fort ancient & marieta

watson brake and poverty point
Arrange woodland period mound building traditions in chronological order:
A) hopewell, fort ancient, adena
B) adena, fort ancient, hopewell
C) adena, hopewell, fort ancient

adena, hopewell, fort ancient
What major force decimated eastern indian natives around time the first euroamericans arrived:
A) small pox, other diseases
B) warfare
C) a major shift in ideology
D) locust swarms
E) climatic shifts

small pox, other diseases
What types of plant domesticate were widely available to the pop of eastern north america during the woodland period?
A) gourds, squash, beans, maize
B) guards, squash, wheat
C) guards, squash, sunflower, goosfoot
D) bottle gourds only
E) n
gourds, squash, sunflower, goosefoot
Which of the following arch cultures/traditions isnt associated with the american southwest:
A) mimbres
B) salado
C) zapotec
D) Sinagua
E) hohokam

In addition to pop pressure, which is most likely reason for adoption of agriculture in the southwest & northern MX?
A) ag buffered risk of poor hunting, gathering returns
B) crops replaced pleistocene megafauna as dietary staple
C) desire for se
NOT a desire for sedentism, maybe ag buffered risk of poor hunting & gathering returns?
What happened to ancestral puebloan ppl living in mesa verde communities after 1300 AD?
A) destroyed by war w/mogollons
B) moved to great plains
C) styed in area but became hunters & gatherers
D) became navajo & apache tribes
E) moved south
moved south & took up residence in chaco communities around the rio grande
In chaco canyon, what's one line of evidence that pueblo bonito didn't have big res pop?
A) small # of rooms
B) low # burials
C) lack of evidence for storage
D) impermanent architecture
E) small size of kivas

low # burials
Why do many pro arch avoid pictographs & petroglyphs?
A) they're often fakes by modern new age visitors
B) diff to date, most interpretations of meanings are speculative
C) analysis of pictographs, petroglyphs typically conducted by cultural anth
NOT - diff to date & most interpretations about their meanings are speculative
maybe - they're often fakes done by modern new age visitors
6. Which of the following is NOT part of the “Upper Sonoran Agricultural Complex”?
A) Manioc
B) Maize
C) Kidney Beans
D) Pinto Beans
E) Squash

B) Maize
The ball court and copper bells unearthed at the Snaketown site indicate which of the following?
A) Athletic competition was reserved for wealthy Olmec elites.
B) Paleoindian culture flourished in the Southeast, but regressed in political complexity
C) The Hohokam had trade relations with groups in Mexico.
Early Mogollon villages were typically located ______________, prob for _____________.
A) near stands of scrub brush; a ready source of firewood
B) in river valleys; access to water
C) atop earlier Aztec sites; the ability to use abandoned archit
E) on hilltops and bluffs; defensive purposes
9. What is the significance of Fajada Butte in Chaco Canyon?
A) It played a part in the Ancestral Puebloan origin myth
B) The site of a prehistoric watchtower
C) A source of high grade obsidian
D) It has a petroglyph placed to mark solstices a
D) It has a petroglyph placed to mark solstices and equinoxes
The Archaic tradition at foundation for Anasazi culture is known to archaeologists as ______________.
A) Oshara
B) O'odam
C) Mogollon
D) Apache
E) Navajo

`Teotihuacan surpassed Cuicuilco as the greatest urban center in the Valley of Mexico when ______________ wrecked that city's infrastructure.
A) a nearby volcano erupted
B) invading Aztec armies
C) poor political leadership
D) a collapse of th
A) a nearby volcano erupted
Which of the following is the largest center of the Lowland (Peten) Maya, with an estimated 120,000 inhabitants?
A) Teotihuacan
B) Tikal
C) Palenque
D) Copan
E) La Venta

B) Tikal
Which of the following Classic Maya sites' ecological collapse is well understood?
A) Copan
B) Kaminiljuyu
C) Teotihuacan
D) Palenque
E) Tikal

A) Copan
Raised fields separated by canals in a lake or swampy ground are known as ______________.
A) chinampas
B) ciudadelas
C) comales
D) danzantes
E) adosadas

A) chinampas
The tomb of Pacal is located in which Mayan ceremonial center?
A) Quirigua
B) Palenque
C) Copan
D) Tikal
E) Teotihuacan

B) Palenque
What is a danzante?
A) An architectural device to enhance the height of structures; also called a “roof comb”
B) A jade necklace
C) A depiction of a sacrificial victim at Monte Alban
D) A primary node in the Oaxacan irrigation system
C) A depiction of a sacrificial victim at Monte Alban
Which is best known formative Mesoamerica culture, utilizing advanced calendrical systems & abstract hieroglyphic writing?
A) Oaxacans
B) Zapotecs
C) Olmecs
D) Cichimecs
E) Mayas

C) Olmecs
The Bonampak murals lend support to the conclusion that the _____________, once believed to be peaceful, did infact engage in warfare between sites?
A) Aztecs
B) Teotihuacanos
C) Mayas
D) Zapotecs
E) Olmecs

C) Mayas
Which of the following was a smaller site in terms of population, yet an important trading center located between major urban centers in Central Mexico?
A) Monte Alban
B) Chuicuilco
C) Palenque
D) Xochicalco
E) Teotihuacan

D) Xochicalco
The politically dominant ethnic group in the Valley of Oaxaca during the Classic Period was the ________________.
A) Mixtec
B) Zapotec
C) Toltec
D) Maya
E) Olmec

B) Zapotec
The term "Pochteca" refers to:
A) Aztec long-distance traders
B) Toltec kings
C) Aztec warriors
D) Tlaxcalan warriors
E) Mixtec polychrome pots

A) Aztec long-distance traders
Teotihuacan was in decline after _________________.
A) 250 BCE
B) 550 CE
C) 900 CE
D) 250 CE
E) 1250 CE

B) 550 CE
Mixtec craftsmen were well known for their __________________________.
A) jade masks
B) copper bells
C) obsidian production
D) featherworking
E) goldworking and brightly painted ceramics

E) goldworking and brightly painted ceramics
Prehistoric Maya settlements of the Yucatan obtained most of their water from _____________.
A) rainfall collected in cisterns
B) open sinkholes in the limestone around them
C) the many rivers that traverse the landscape
D) the ocean
E) wel
B) open sinkholes in the limestone around them
The Toltec state flourished between ___________________.
A) 1200 – 1500 CE
B) 900 – 1200 CE
C) 600 – 900 CE
D) 250 – 900 CE
E) 100 BCE – 650 CE

B) 900 – 1200 CE
What was the population of the Valley of Mexico at the time of the Spanish conquest?
A) 100,000,000
B) 1,000,000
C) 10,000,000
D) 10,000
E) 100,000

B) 1,000,000
Cacaxtla was probably founded by _________________ who were eventually expelled by the _______________.
A) Toltecs; Mixtecs
B) Teotihuacanos; Aztecs
C) Zapotecs; Mixtecs
D) Toltecs; Aztecs
E) Chontal Maya; Toltecs

E) Chontal Maya; Toltecs
The Aztec Empire initiated with the forming of the Triple Alliance and a successful rebellion against the ___________________ in 1427.
A) Mixtecs
B) Tepanecs
C) Chontal Mayas
D) Mexica
E) Zapotecs

B) Tepanecs
The two main island cities at the heart of the Aztec empire were:
A) Texcotzingo and Texcoco
B) Tlacopan and Azcapotzalco
C) Chalco and Xochimilco
D) Tlatelolco and Tenochtitlan
E) Tula and Tollan

D) Tlatelolco and Tenochtitlan
The largest pyramid in the Americas was built at which of the following sites?
A) Teotihuacan
B) Tula
C) Tenochtitlan
D) Cacaxtla
E) Cholula

C) Tenochtitlan
In the Mississippian region, an important non-agricultural source of protein was provided by ______________.
A) Algae
B) Wild beans
C) Maize
D) Human Flesh
E) Fish

E) Fish
Middle Mississippian sites typically DID NOT have which of the following?
A) Draft animals
B) Chiefdom level social complexity
C) Earthen mounds
D) Palisades
E) Artifacts of the Southern Ceremonial Complex

A) Draft animals
Between 600 and 800 CE, the nature of hunting and warfare in many parts of Eastern North America was changed by _____________________.
A) changes in settlement density
B) a severe reversal in climatic trends
C) advent of widespread use of the bow
C) advent of widespread use of the bow and arrow
Cahokia most likely reached a maximum population of ______________.
A) 40,000
B) 500
C) 20,000
D) 6,000
E) 1,000

D) 6,000
The largest single earthen mound north of Mesoamerica is _______________ at the site of __________________.
A) Monks' Mound; Cahokia
B) Monks' Mound; Moundville
C) Mound A; Cahokia
D) Mound A; Oculgee
E) Mound C; Etowah

A) Monks' Mound; Cahokia
The most distantly procured marine shell at Spiro Mounds came from as far away as _____________________.
A) the Caribbean Sea
B) the Pacific Ocean
C) the Arctic Ocean
D) the Gulf of Mexico
E) the Atlantic Ocean

B) the Pacific Ocean
Which of the following is NOT true of the "Vacant Quarter"?
A) is was centered on the American Bottom of the Mississippi Valley
B) it resulted from the collapse of Middle Mississippi chiefdoms
C) it was depopulated by epidemics
D) it was a 15t
E) inhabitants were forced to move out by more powerful peoples
How can we tell that Mississippian people were eating more maize than people that came before them?
A) there are elevated levels of Carbon-13 (13C) in their bones
B) there are murals showing men farming
C) archaeologists have found special tools
A) there are elevated levels of Carbon-13 (13C) in their bones
The rank system of the Natchez had the effect of ____________________.
A) permanently excluding lower classes from the upper ranks
B) prohibiting intermarriage between groups
C) delegating particular economic roles to particular subsets of the so
E) slowly providing upward social mobility over the course of generations
Which of the following is NOT generally true of chiefdoms?
A) The chief is not all-powerful
B) They are very stable and often last for a very long time
C) They have two or more levels of integration
D) They are more complex than tribes
E) C
B) They are very stable and often last for a very long time
Distinctive globular form shell-tempered cooking pots, often with strap handles and incised designs, are a cultural marker of which of the following groups?
A) Onondaga
B) Oneota
C) Seneca
D) Mohawk
E) Cheyenne

B) Oneota
What characterizes graves at the Norris Farm site in western Illinois?
A) Elaborate burial mounds replete with luxury goods that signify elite status
B) Evidence of violence, suggesting endemic warfare
C) Graves are located beneath vacated longho
B) Evidence of violence, suggesting endemic warfare
In what general region did Siouan and Algonquian groups rely heavily on wild rice for subsistence?
A) Great Lakes
B) Hudson Bay
C) Appalachian Mountains
D) New England
E) Mid-Atlantic coast

A) Great Lakes
Unlike most other Eastern Algonquian groups, the ____________ chiefdom of coastal Virginia relied on maize agriculture to fuel its emergence as a ranked political organization.
A) Shawnee
B) Mitla
C) Powhatan
D) Cheyenne
E) Huron

C) Powhatan
Over time, Cheyenne subsistence adaptation shifted from:
A) maize horticulture to hunting-gathering to bison hunting
B) bison hunting to bean cultivation to maize/bean/squash cultivation.
C) bison hunting to maize agriculture to wild rice gatheri
E) wild rice gathering to maize horticulture to bison hunting.
The League of the Iroquois was created primarily __________________.
A) to exchange food in times of need
B) to defend against the encroaching Europeans
C) as a solution to endemic warfare
D) to ensure subjugation of ethnic outgroups
E) to
C) as a solution to endemic warfare
Epidemics in the American Northeast in general were delayed by _______________.
A) Iroquoian social organization
B) the Little Ice Age
C) the great vacant areas of low population in the Appalachians
D) the absence of European children who carr
D) the absence of European children who carried the germs that Native Americans lacked immunity towards
Algonquian rock art emphasizes imagery of _________________.
A) warfare and human sacrifice
B) transformation and sexuality
C) political organization
D) agriculture
E) hunting

B) transformation and sexuality
Beans became an important dietary component in the northeast after 1200 C.E. reducing the reliance on __________.
A) wild rice
B) gourds
C) hunting
D) maize
E) squash

C) hunting
During the Medieval Maximum the boundary at which 120 frost free days occur annually shifted further _____________.
A) West
B) North
C) South
D) East
E) Northeast

B) North
Which of the following does not characterized the Bighorn Medicine Wheel?
A) it is comprised of a ring of boulders 24 meters in diameter
B) artifacts at the site indicate that it dates to recent centuries
C) postholes indicate that a ring of woo
C) postholes indicate that a ring of wooden timbers once supported a roof
A major factor in the dispersal of horses into native American cultures of the Inland West was ______________________.
A) La Salle’s Expedition to the Texas coast
B) the Lewis and Clark expedition
C) French trade from the Great Lakes
D) the
D) the Pueblo Revolt of 1680
Before adopting horses, what did Plains nomads regularly use as pack animals?
A) Captured slaves
B) Dogs
C) Bison
D) Llamas
E) Mountain goats

B) Dogs
Peoples of the prehistoric Northern Plains lived in tepees _________________.
A) only in the latest parts of the Late Prehistoric Period, after adopting the horse
B) year-round for most of their lives
C) very rarely, tepees are mostly a historic
D) in the summertime only

Which of the following states and provinces do NOT make up part of the Northwest Plateau region?
A) Washington
B) Oregon
C) Utah
D) Idaho
E) British Columbia

C) Utah
The ancestors of the Navaho appear to have derived from _____________________.
A) Eastern Woodlands Algonquians
B) the Hopewell Tradition
C) the Northwest Plateau
D) the Southern Plains Village Tradition
E) Uto-Aztecan speakers

NOT the southern plains village tradition
Why is there little mention of Great Basin petroglyphs in Numic oral traditions?
A) Julian Steward encouraged the Numic not to share their interpretations of the petroglyphs with non-Numic peoples.
B) All Numic people were killed by Shoshone invader
C) The petroglyphs were made by the Fremont, who were more or less replaced in the Great Basin by Numic speaking peoples.
What was the main adaptation of the Fremont culture, which existed in central Utah from 400 to 1300 CE?
A) Fishing and trade with agriculturalist neighbors
B) Part-time maize farmers
C) Intensive, irrigated agriculture
D) Hunters and gatherers
B) Part-time maize farmers
Bison hunters of the Great Plains often traded with neighboring Plains Village peoples in order to obtain _______________.
A) land
B) meat
C) weapons
D) plant foods
E) wives

D) plant foods
Plains Woodland Cultures lacked which of the following?
A) hunting
B) pottery
C) maize cultivation
D) dispersed villages
E) circular or oval houses

NOT dispersed villages or circular or oval houses (D or E)
Wooden racks found at wet sites on the Hoko River near the oregon coast were most likely used to ______.
A) torture captives
B) dry fish
C) carry supplies
D) carry infants
E) display enemy scalps

B) dry fish
The discovery of two very different, contemporaneous, spatially distinct tool assemblages in the Archaic period of the Northwest Coast poses the problem of _____________________.
A) whether dating techniques in the region are adequate
B) distinguish
B) distinguishing two different archaeological cultures from a single seasonally mobile culture using different technologies in different locations
North America's last prehistoric man, who died of tubuculosis in 1916, was called "Ishi" by Alfred Kroeber. What does the Yani word "Ishi" translate to in English?
A) brother
B) rabbit
C) hunter
D) man
E) the last one

D) man
The absence of Late Paleoindian points, such as Folsom, in California is thought to be a result of _______________________.
A) the extended use of earlier projectile forms in the region
B) substitution of other materials, such as bone, for projectil
E) the early disappearance of megafauna in the region
A mudslide around 1750 CE buried this most famous site located at the northwest tip of Washington State creating a 'pompeii-effect' of excellent preservation. What is the name of the site?
A) Maidu
B) Ozette
C) Five Mile Rapids
D) Tlingit
B) Ozette
Which of the following best characterizes the subsistence strategies of groups in California during the "Middle Horizon?"
A) Increasingly intensive use of small fish and game species and dietary staples like acorns
B) Focus on big game species with
A) Increasingly intensive use of small fish and game species and dietary staples like acorns
Historic northwest cultures developed a system of competitive feasting & conspicuous consumption that anthropologists refer to as the ________.
A) Penutian
B) Potlatch
C) Labret
D) May Pole Ceremony
E) Fiesta

B) Potlatch
Along the northwest coast, salmon, herring, smelt and candlefish run in huge numbers during which of the following months?
A) August and September
B) December and January
C) March and April
D) October and Novermber
E) June and July
C) March and April
________________ served as a type of currency among ancient and historic peoples of the West Coast.
A) Otter teeth
B) Obsidian knives
C) Whale teeth
D) Seashells
E) Otter skins

D) Seashells
Which of the following is NOT true of the Namu site?
A) it is one of the oldest known sites on the coast of British Columbia
B) it was inhabited by marine hunters
C) both microblades and elements of the pebble tool tradition are present
D) hug
D) huge shell middens were used for burials of high-status individuals
Eastern Subarctic Algonquians relied primarily on what subsistence activity(ies) for food?
A) Maize and bean cultivation
B) Whale hunting
C) Nut and berry gathering
D) Caribou hunting and fishing
E) Wild Rice gathering by canoe

D) Caribou hunting and fishing
The widespread archaeological and linguistic homogeneity of the Eastern Subarctic has been explained by ____________________.
A) extensive and overlapping social networks
B) the low population density of the area
C) the isolating characteristics
A) extensive and overlapping social networks
By 1100 CE Dorset culture was eclipsed by the even better adapted ___________ culture.
A) Kachemak
B) Norton
C) Thule
D) Pre-Dorset
E) Birnirk

C) Thule
The earliest pottery in the Arctic is associated with ______________ culture and appears between 1200 BCE and 600 CE.
A) Independence
B) Birnirk
C) Anangula
D) Norton
E) Old Whaling

D) Norton
____________ seem(s) to have been a recurrent locus of innovation and cultural elaboration in the Arctic/Subartic region.
A) Alaska
B) The Aleutian Islands
C) Newfoundland
D) Hudson Bay
E) Greenland

C) Newfoundland
Which of the following is/are not found in Dorset assemblages?
A) oil lamps
B) fish spears and stone cooking pots
C) bows and arrows
D) kayaks and umiaks
E) pottery

E) pottery
Large, crescent shaped knives used both historically and in ancient times by peoples of the Arctic are called ______________.
A) steatites
B) ulus
C) anangulas
D) labrets
E) umiaks

B) ulus
Discovery of a fluted projectile point at the Mesa site has suggested to some archaeologists that _________________.
A) Dorset culture was ultimately derived of Clovis origins
B) Clovis technology may have diffused back into Alaska after being inven
The development and spread of the oil lamp occurred during which Arctic/Subarctic cultural stage?
A) Stage 2, 5000-2200(+/-300) BCE
B) Stage 5, 600(+/-500)-1850 BCE
C) Stage 1, 15,000-5000 BCE
D) Stage 4, 1200(+/-400)BCE-600(+/-500) BCE
D) Stage 4, 1200(+/-400)BCE-600(+/-500) BCE
Subarctic peoples lived in small widely scattered bands linked into _________________.
A) connubia
B) religious orders
C) tribes
D) complex economic exchange networks
E) umiaks

A) connubia
After steady decline since contact, Native American populations began to rebound after __________ C.E.
A) 1800
B) 1700
C) they are still declining
D) 1900
E) 2000

D) 1900
The predominant society of professional archaeologists in North America is known as ________.
A) the NAA
C) the CRM
D) the SAA

D) the SAA
The most reasonable estimates of the Native American population north of Mexico at the time of European contact fall at around _______________.
A) 8 million
B) 10 million
C) 160,000
D) 1.8 – 3.4 million
E) 20 million

D) 1.8 – 3.4 million
Which of the following is NOT true of L'Anse aux Meadows?
A) The site was only briefly inhabited around 1000 C.E.
B) The site is located on the northern tip of Newfoundland.
C) The site is now a World Heritage site.
D) The site was inhabited b
E) The site was discovered in the 18th century and excavated in the 19th century.
According to the Archaeological Code of Ethics, which of the following is NOT permitted?
A) Refraining from excavating sites when excavation is not necessary
B) Training amateur archaeologists in professional techniques
C) Publicly reporting arch
E) The sale or appraisal of artifacts
Generally speaking, Europeans responded to epidemic diseases by ___________; American Indian communities responded by __________________.
A) having more children; adopting refugees and captives
B) having more children; having more children
C) ado
A) having more children; adopting refugees and captives
Which of the following landed on the Vera Cruz coast of Mexico in 1519 and later led forces to conquer the Aztec Capital of Tenochtitlan in 1521?
A) Ponce de Leon
B) John Cabot
C) Francisco Vázquez de Coronado
D) Hernan Cortes
E) Hernando
D) Hernan Cortes
The earliest European interest in the American Eastern Seaboard took the form of _______________.
A) gold prospecting
B) settlement of deviant religious sects
C) trading for furs
D) fishing
E) Christian missionizing

D) fishing
Where did Columbus land in 1492 C.E.?
A) Newfoundland
B) The Bahamas
C) Maine
D) Tampa Bay
E) The Yucatan Peninsula

B) The Bahamas
In large part because all projects with federal funding must identify, avoid, or mitigate impacts on archaeological sites, most new careers in archaeology are in ______________.
A) public health
B) surveying
C) historical archive development
E) cultural resource management
The Eastern Woodlands, once the center of Adena and Hopewell occupations, was ________________ when encountered by Euroamericans.
A) home to the Fort Ancient culture group
B) still occupied by Hopewell communities and mound centers
C) heavily und
D) depopulated and reverting back to wilderness
Calendrics and writing were taken to their highest level of development in Mesoamerica by the:
A) Classic Chichimecs
B) Classic Maya
C) Classic Olmecs
D) Classic Aztecs
E) Classic Toltecs

B) Classic Maya
The addition of ______________ to their economic system caused Mississippian polities to grow to critical sizes.
A) marine shell trade goods
B) imported chert for tools
C) regional fairs
D) maize
E) marketplaces

D) maize
The Maya counting system, using bars and dots, is a vigesimal system, or base _________ system.
A) 10
B) 20
C) 5
D) 60
E) 12

B) 20
Farming was probably introduced to the Greater Southwest by which of the following?
A) Paleoindian hunter-gatherer groups migrating south from Canada.
B) Uto-Aztecan speakers expanding northward out of Mexico.
C) Hunter-gatherer groups already li
B) Uto-Aztecan speakers expanding northward out of Mexico.
Settlements within Chaco Canyon were physically connected to distant outlier sites by ____________.
A) highly distinctive petroglyphs
B) similar burial patterns
C) ideology
D) a road system
E) the same language

D) a road system
A 1300-year return of cold conditions in the early part of the Holocene is known as the _______________.
A) Younger Dryas
B) Upper Paleolithic
C) Pleistocene
D) Older Dryas
E) Little Ice Age

A) Younger Dryas
Which of the following is not in the hierarchy of terms used to classify polities in this course?
A) chiefdom
B) band
C) tribe
D) state
E) commonwealth

E) commonwealth
What is the name of the area of land that connected Asia and North America during the last Ice Age?
A) Greenland
B) Siberia
C) Laurentia
D) Beringia
E) Cordilleria

D) Beringia
Surviving skeletons of Paleoindians appear:
A) to have been completely lost from the archaeological record.
B) to support trans-Atlantic migration.
C) long-headed compared to modern American Indians.
D) only in the Eastern Woodlands.
E) to
C) long-headed compared to modern American Indians.
The Spanish did their best to destroy the monuments of the Aztec capital, but in 1978 their Great Temple was excavated and partially reconstructed in:
A) Mexico City
B) Teotihuacan
C) Tula
D) Cholula
E) Puebla

A) Mexico City
Between 230 and 430 C.E., at the onset of the Classic period, many Maya settlements developed past a ______________ level political organization into a _____________ level political organization.
A) city-state; empire
B) band; tribe
C) city-state
E) chiefdom; city-state
The largest Classic city of Highland Mexico was:
A) Cuicuilco
B) Cholula
C) Teotihuacan
D) Monte Alban
E) Palenque

C) Teotihuacan
The numerous clusters of Iroquoian village sites in the Northeast was produced by:
A) revenge motivated warfare.
B) frequent village relocations.
C) incorporation of non-Iroquoian captives.
D) river-bottom agriculture.
E) forced relocations
B) frequent village relocations.
Mesoamerica can be thought of as being in two parts, separated by:
A) The Gran Chichimeca
B) The Yucatan Peninsula
C) The Greater Southwest
D) The Isthmus of Tehuantepec
E) The Valley of Mexico

D) The Isthmus of Tehuantepec
A notable unconquered province surrounded by the Aztec Empire was:
A) Teotihuacan
B) Tlaxcala
C) Tikal
D) Texcoco
E) Tlatelolco

B) Tlaxcala
Which civilization laid the foundation for later Classic city-states and still later empires in Mesoamerica?
A) Aztec
B) Toltec
C) Peten
D) Hohokam
E) Olmec

E) Olmec
Trade goods came into the Greater Southwest from Mesoamerica in exchange for:
A) hematite
B) maize
C) gold
D) turquoise
E) jade

D) turquoise
Algonquian expansion was facilitated in part by
A) the spear thrower
B) the bow and arrow
C) the birchbark canoe
D) the development of multiple chiefdoms
E) obsidian tools

B) the bow and arrow
The northward expansion of the Northern Iroquoians was made possible by:
A) the Holocene
B) the Little Ice Age
C) the Younger Dryas
D) the Maunder Minimum
E) the Medieval Maximum

E) the Medieval Maximum
The earliest and eventually the largest Mississippian polities developed in:
A) the Louisiana Borderland.
B) the Plaquemine Frontier.
C) the Alabama Margin.
D) the Aztalan Suburbs.
E) the American Bottom.

E) the American Bottom.
A charnal house is a building dedicated to which of the following?
A) housing the many concubines of a powerful chief
B) storing Maize for redistribution
C) housing the remains of distinguished ancestors
D) storing weapons reserved for large s
C) housing the remains of distinguished ancestors
Much of what we are able to infer about Mississippian societies comes from descriptions:
A) of Iroquois culture in American sources.
B) of Mixtec culture in Native sources.
C) of Cahokia culture in English sources.
D) of Aztec culture in Spani
E) of Natchez culture in French sources.
Which of the following characterizes Adena and Hopewell cultures?
A) high population levels.
B) military expansion.
C) maize agriculture.
D) long-distance trade in luxury items.
E) chiefdom political organization.

D) long-distance trade in luxury items.
Paleoindians apparently adapted to the warmer, drier climate conditions accompanying the:
A) onset of the Younger Dryas.
B) end of the Pleistocene.
C) end of the Younger Dryas.
D) end of the holocene.
E) onset of the Pleistocene.

C) end of the Younger Dryas.
One characteristic in which Late Paleoindian-Early Archaic sites differ from Early Paleoindian sites is in:
A) The presence of kill sites.
B) The presence of pottery.
C) The presence of substantial midden deposits.
D) Their location on all par
C) The presence of substantial midden deposits.
Biologically modern humans evolved in Africa about __________ years ago.
A) 200,000
B) 1 million
C) 120,000
D) 100,000
E) 35,000

A) 200,000
A tribe must morph into a chiefdom when its population passes_______.
A) the point of no return
B) 100
C) 10000
D) 500
E) 1000

E) 1000
The first Folsom Point point to be recovered, in New Mexico, was associated with the bones of which animal:
A) a mastodon.
B) a mammoth.
C) a giant short-faced bear.
D) an extinct form of bison.
E) a sabertooth cat.

D) an extinct form of bison.
The Archaic was originally conceived by archaeologists as the long period:
A) between Beringia and Mesoamerica.
B) between Pre-Clovis and Folsom.
C) following the Younger Dryas.
D) between Paleoindian and the advent of agriculture and pottery
D) between Paleoindian and the advent of agriculture and pottery production.
The Pleistocene ice age began about ________ years ago.
A) 1.2 billion
B) 4.6 million
C) 21,000
D) 150,000
E) 1.8 million

E) 1.8 million
Burials within Adena mounds contain:
A) no skeletons at all.
B) high-status adult males and females only.
C) both male and female individuals of all ages.
D) only high-status adult males.
E) only children.

C) both male and female individuals of all ages.
Most key Paleoindian sites have been found in or near______________.
A) The West Coast
B) The Great Plains
C) Southern Canada
D) The Greater Southwest
E) The Eastern Woodlands

D) The Greater Southwest
What was the primary weapon used by the first people that reached North America?
A) spear and spear thrower
B) bow and arrow
C) knife and blowgun
D) rope and snare
E) bola stones

A) spear and spear thrower
The use of similar projectile point types, much like the use of index fossils in geological strata, to cross date sites:
A) Is the only method for accurately dating sites in North America.
B) Produces reliable dates because the same types were alway
E) Requires verification from a 2nd independent method for any serious analysis.
The Archaeology of North America reveals that:
A) civilization arose first in America and spread elsewhere.
B) civilization is a myth fostered by an international conspiracy.
C) civilization arose independently more than once.
D) civilization

C) civilization arose independently more than once.
_______________ are pecked or engraved on rock faces; ________________ are painted on rock surfaces.
A) pictographs; petroglyphs
B) petroglyphs; pictographs
C) logographs; pictograms
D) pictographs; ideograms
E) ideographs; petroglyphs
B) petroglyphs; pictographs
Which of the following does NOT characterize the Ushki complex?
A) bifacial knives and stemmed points.
B) exploitation of salmon runs.
C) having dogs.
D) stone and ivory beads.
E) a lack of terrestrial animal hunting.

E) a lack of terrestrial animal hunting.
Aztec scribes wrote native books but only 13 of them survive because
A) the Spanish systematically eradicated them.
B) the priests destroyed them rather than letting them fall into the hands of the Spanish.
C) the great library of Tenochtitlan bu
A) the Spanish systematically eradicated them.
The ancestors of the Navajo and Apache peoples:
A) Were present in the Greater Southwest by 1000 CE.
B) Expelled the Ancestral Pueblo people from the Greater Southwest by military means.
C) were early Spanish-speaking colonists.
D) Displaced o
E) occupied vacant areas abandoned by settled villagers after 1500 CE.
7.The two areas of North America where plant cultivation emerged independently were:
A) the West Coast and the Great Plains.
B) the Plateau and the Great Basin.
C) the Great Basin and the Eastern Woodlands.
D) the Eastern Woodlands and Mesoame
B) the Plateau and the Great Basin.
The period of cultural evolution in which humans first entered North America is known as the ______________.
A) Lower Paleolithic
B) Upper Paleolithic
C) Neolithic
D) Mesolithic
E) Middle Paleolithic

B) Upper Paleolithic
Which of the following occurred during the Pleistocene epoch?
A) The interbreeding of Neandertals and modern human beings gave rise to Cro Magnons in Europe.
B) The United States supplanted Canada as the largest independent nation-state in North Ame
D) The polar ice caps melted, causing ocean levels to reach unprecedented heights.
Which of the following techniques does NOT provide evidence for climate change?
A) lake sediment coring.
B) deep see coring.
C) tree ring dating.
D) radiocarbon dating.
E) ice coring.

D) radiocarbon dating.
The rise of the South Appalachian Mississippian tradition was triggered by:
A) Iroquoian expansion southward during the Medieval Maximum.
B) French colonization.
C) climate-driven migrations out of the Greater Southwest.
D) the spread of tobac
E) the migration of Siouan-speaking groups into the region.
Current evidence suggests that early migrating bands may have first spread:
A) along the West Coast southward.
B) across the North Atlantic to Canada.
C) down the spine of the Rocky Mountains to Mesoamerica.
D) through the Great Lakes by boat.
A) along the West Coast southward.
In how many different regions of the world did agriculture develop independently?
A) 2
B) 42
C) 13
D) 7
E) 3

D) 7

Deck Info