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Instrument Oral Exam Prep


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What are the required documents for legal flight?
A-irworthiness Cert
R-egistration Cert
R-adio Station License (int'l flights)
O-perating limitations
W-eight and Balance
List the airworthness requirements and time frames for an aircraft and its systems?
A-irworthiness Directives Compliancy
V-ORs (30 days)
I-nspections (annual or 100 hour)
A-ltimeter (24 months)
T-ransponder (24 months)
E-LT (12 months, changes batts 1/2 useful life or 1-hr. cumm. use)
S-tatic Systems (24 months)
What instruments and equipment are required for VFR night flight?
VFR by Day instrument and equipment requirements

L-anding Lights
A-nti-collision Lights
P-osition Lights
S-ource of Electrical Power
What instruments and equipment are required for IFR flight?
VFR by day and night instrument and equipment requirements

G-enerator or alternator
A-ttitude Indicator (gyroscopic)
C-lock (w/ seconds)
A-ltimeter (pressure sensitive)
R-ate of Turn Indicator
D-irectional Gyro
D-ME (at or above FL24, when VOR nav is used)
Explain the Seminole engines?
H-orizontally opposed
A-ir Cooled
N-ormally Aspirated
D-irect Drive

4 Cylinder, 180HP at 2700RPM
What are the different types of compass errors?
M-agnetic Dip
N-ortherly Turning Errors (UNOS)
A-cceleration Errors (ANDS)
What are the following transponder codes?
1200 - VFR
7500 - Hijacking
7600 - Lost Comms
7700 - Emergency
7777 - Military Intercept
What items should a pilot be aware of before beginning an IFR flight?
K-nown traffic delays
R-unway lengths
F-uel requirements
T-akeoff/landing distances
What are the fundamental skills of flying?
1. Instument Cross-Check
2. Instrument Interpretation
3. Aircraft Control
What are three common errors associated with instrument scans?
What actions should a pilot take upon entering a hold or procedure turn?
T-urn to outbound heading
T-wist to inbound heading
T-hrottle for desired speed
T-alk to ATC when inbound
What are the elements of an IFR Clearance?
C-learance Limit
R-oute of Flight
F-requency of Dep. Control
T-ransponder Code
A pilot may not descend from MDA/DA unless?
F-light visibility meets published minimums for the approach
L-anding environment is in sight
Y-ou must be a position to make a normal descent and landing
What reports should a pilot alwas make to ATC per the FARs?
U-nforecasted weather
S-afety of flight
A-ltitude and time over requested reporting points
F-ailure of any nav or comm equipment in controlled airspace
What reports should a pilot make to ATC per the AIM?
V-acating assigned altitude
A-ltitude changes while VFR-on-Top
C-hange in TAS of 5% or 10 knots, whichever is greater
U-nable to climb or descend at 500/fpm
U-pon reaching/leaving a holding fix or clearance limit
M-issed approach
What reports should a pilot make to ATC when not in radar contact?
P-osition reports
I-nbound at FAF or OM
E-TA error >3 minutes
What are the elements of a position report?
I-dentification of aircraft
T-ype of flight plan
E-TA and name of next reporting point
N-ame of following
S-upplemental information
Describe the DECIDE model for airmen?
D-etect that a change has occurred
E-stimate the need to react
C-hoose a desirable outcome
I-dentify actions to control change
D-o the necessary action
E-valuate the effects of actions
When is a procedure turn not required?
N-oPT on the IAP
O-therwise directed by ATC
R-adar vectors to final
T-imed approaches from a holding fix
H-olding or teardrop depicted in lieu of PT
What are the recency requirements for insturment currency?
6 approaches in 6 months in a/c, sim, or FTD.

H-olding procedures
I-ntercepting and
T-racking courses

If not, must complete these requirements within 6 months or take an IPC
What are the altitude, routing, and clearance limit rules for lost communiations while on an IFR flight?
Altitude (whichever is highest)
M-inimum enroute altitude
E-xpected altitude
A-ssigned altidude
-If encouter VFR, remain VFR and land

A-s filed

Clearance Limit
If clearance limit is an IAF, conduct approach at EFC. If no EFC, then at ETA. If limit is not an IAF, then proceed to IAF at EFC and conduct approach at ETA.
What are the elements of the I'M SAFE checklist?
What are the oxygen requirements?
>12,500: oxygen must be worn by pilots at all times after 30 minutes
>14,000: oxygen must be worm by all required crew members
>15,000: oxygen must be supplied to passengers
What are the instrument and equipment requirements for VFR day flight?
O-il Pressure Gauge
M-agnetic Compass
A-irspeed Indicator
T-emperature Guage (Liguid Cooled Engines)
O-Oil Temperature Guage (Air Cooled Engines)
F-uel Gauges
L-anding Gear Indiciation
A-nti-collision Lights
M-anifold Pressure
S-eat Belts
What are the 3 categories of Notams?
L - satisfies local user requirements
D - beyond the responsibility area of the FSS
FDC - Regulatory in nature
How does an altimeter work?
aneroid wafers exapnd and contract as atmospheric pressure changes, and through a shaft and gear linkage, rotate pointers on the dial of the instrument.
Identify and define the different types of altitudes.
Indicated - read off the instrument.
Pressure - indicated when 29.92 set in the altimeter.
True - MSL
Absolute - AGL
Density - pressure altitude corrected for non-standard temp.
How does the airspeed indicator work?
measures the difference between ram pressure from the Pitot head and the atmospheric pressure from the static source.
How does the VSI work?
changing pressures expand and contract a diaphram connected to the indicating needle through gears and levers. The VSI is connected to the static pressure line through a calibrated leak; it measures differential pressure.
How does the vacuum system work?
by drawing a stream of air against the rotor vanes to spin the rotor at high speeds.
What are two important characteristics of gyroscopes?
Rigidity - will not rotate as earth rotates.
Precession - applied forces are not felt at the point of application, but 90 degrees in the direction of the spin.
Name four types of structural icing.
Clear - large water droplets strike the a/c and freeze slowly.
Rime - small water droplets strike the a/c and freeze rapidly.
Frost - ice forms by sublimation when OAT and dew point are below freezing.
What factors must be present for thunderstorms to occur?
Source of lift
Unstable air
High mositure content

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