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Unit 4-1


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What method does an A-scan indicator use to display video?
Deflection Modulation
What target information is provided by the plan position indictor (PPI)
Range and Azimuth
What type of scan an "paint" a map of the area, to include the areas of heavy rain or clouds?
Plan position indicator
In a raster scan indicator, how many vertical scan periods does it take to produce one complete picture?
two (2)
which indicator component determines the overall operation of the indicator?
data processing circuits
Which indicator components main purpose is to control the intensity of the cathode ray tube electron beam?
the Video circuits
Digital display data from the data processing circuits is converted into analog drive signals in the
deflection circuits
Electromagnetic deflection is accomplished by applying
current through the deflection coil
The vacuum in a cathode ray tube...
prevents collisions between electrons in the beam and air molecules
What is the leading edge to leading edge spacing between P1 and P3 of Mode 3?
8 usec.
(603) The frequency use for IFF/SIF interrogations is
1030 MHz
(604) An X pulse is present in an SIF code train when...
the aircraft is a pilotless drone or missle
(604) Which special response explains a 7500 reply?
(605) the AN/UPM-155 radar test set is capable of testing
interregators and associated components
(605) What possible input voltages may be supplied to the an/upm-155 test set for operation?
115 vac or 230 vac
(606) What three components are included within electronic combat (EC)?
command,control, and communication countermeasures (CjCM),suppresion of enemy air defenses (SEAD), and electronic warfare (EW)
(606) What are the three primary areas of electronic warfare?
electronic warfare support (ES), electronic attack (EA) and electronic protection (EP)
(607) What is the relatively new concept of employing electronic warfare support (ES)
to provide a tactically oriented immediate response
(607) The primary role of the electronic warfare support (ES) is a wartime function that provides the military commander a capability that can
integrate with other operational forces
(608) Predictable external factors that affect electronic attack (EA) are
victim radar characteristics and burn through range
(608) the three major categories that nose jammers can be divided into are
spot jammers, sweep jammers, and barrage jammers
(608) A decoy is...
an expendable aircraft like vehicle used to provide deception
(609) What transmitter fix is for synchronous pulsed jammers?
staggered pulse recurrent frequency
(609) What technique is used in a strong clutter or jamming enviroment to improve target detection?
Fast time constant (FTC)
(609) What is the primary receiver on many of the radar sets?
(609) Personnel must be aware of hostile electronic warfare support signal intelligent capabilities when radiating electromagnetic energy to prevent...
highlighting their intentions or capabilities
(610) What characteristic of frequency does a radar target moving towards the wsr-88d radar exhibit?
a higher frequency than the original broadcast
(610) Transverse velocity is the velocity component of the
targets moving perpendicular to the radar beam
(610) The velocity azimuth display (VAD) is
a plot of radial velocity as a function of azimuth
(610) Given a wind blowing directly from the east, the antenna scan direction that yields the highest velocity azimuth display profile amplitude is an antenna bearing of...
east and west
(611) What is an indication of velocity aliasing ambiguity?
target motion away from the radar may suddenly appear to be moving towards the radar
(611) What contemporary term is used to express the display of targets at the wrong range due to system pulse repetition frequency (PRF)
range folding
[601] When would you use an electrostatic indicator instead of an electromagnetic indicator?
when small, lightweight, compact components are used
[601] How is information presented on the A-scan indicator?
as a vertical deflection, deflection modulated
[601] How is time represented on an A-scan indicator?
by the horizontal distance from the start trigger to the input signal
[601] How is video presented on a B-scan indicator?
intensity-modulated electon beam that presents targets as bright spots
[601] What type of radar uses the B-scan indicator?
the PAR
[601] How would elevation and range be presented on a B-scan indicator?
on the upper portion
[601] What target information does a PPI scan present?
range and azimuth
[601] What type of pattern does a raster scan indicator use to scan the CRT?
scanning electron beam
[602] what compenents do all indicators have regardless of type?
power supplies, data processing circuits, video circuits, deflection circuits and CRT/front panel controls
[602] What furnishes the operating voltages for the CRT?
the High Voltage Power Supply
[602] List the three functions performed by the data processing circuits.
Data Calculation, Interface, and Data Distribution
[602] How do the video circuits protect the CRT during certain malfunctions?
by disabling the HVPS and providing blanking
[602] How do the data processing circuits specify beam position?
using X and Y coordinates, with the orgin at the center
[602] List the two types of CRT's
electrostatic or electromagnetic
[602] What part of the CRT shields the electron beam from unwanted electric fields?
the aquadag
[602] What is the primary hazard involved with high-vacuum CRT's?
high vacuum and large surface area make it vulnerable to dangerous implosions
[602] What do the front panel controls allow the operator to do?
select input signals, messages, operating parameters, and adjust indicator format
[603] What are the SIF modes used to interrogate an aircraft?
Mode 1, 2, 3 and C
[603] What is the spacing between P1 and P3 pulses for the four SIF modes?
3, 5, 8, 21 microseconds
[603]What is the pulse width of P1, p2, and P3 pulses
.08 us wide
[603] What is the xmitted frequency of the interrogation pulses?
1030 mHz
[603] What is the purpose of transmitting a P2 pulse?
to eliminate side lobe reception
[604] What type of code and what are the increments of the altitude information received in Mode C?
a grey code train of pulses in 100 ft. increments
[604] What is the width of any given pulse in a SIF reply code train?
0.45 us wide
[604] What is the bracket pulse spacing on a normal SIF code train?
20.3 us
[604] What signifies that the SIF reply has been xmitted by a missle or drone?
an X pulse
[604] What is the purpose of a reply pulse that is 4.35 us after the last bracket pulse of a SIF code train and what is it called?
Identification of Position, when 2 or more aircraft are responding with the same code and are too close for the operator to diferentiate
[604] What is the only IFF/SIF mode that can decode civilian emergencies?
Mode 3/A
[604] How is a communications emergency received by the ground station?
By a 7600 emergency reply code
[604] Which modes will decode military emergencies?
They can be received in any SIF mode, including C
[604] Describe a Mode 4 IFF reply...
It consists of three 0.5 us pulses spaced 1.8 us apart
[606] What is the goal of electronic combat? (EC)?
to control selected parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, thus denying its use to the enemy while retaining effective use for friendly forces
[606] What are three primary areas of electronic warfare (EW)?
Electronic warfare support, Electronic attack, and Electronic Position
[606] What does electronic warfare support, electronic attack, and electronic protection do upson initiation of hostilities?
ES updates intelligence; EA and EP are supplied to support friendly forces
[607] What does ES provide to its consumer?
Timely and comprehensive information to the activities it supports
[606] What is the difference between ES and signal intelligence assets?
ES assets are totally controlled by the theatre command while SIGINT assets are responsive to national level tasking requirements
[607] What activities apply to ES?
Threat location, detection, warning, emitter avoidance, target acquisition, homing and destruction or suppression
[607] What is required to exploit the EM environment?
Timely interception and analysis and each xmission likely to contain information that can influence current or future operations
[607] What information and techniqes does ES provide?
Information on the location of emitters and information and techniques useful in reducing the effectiveness of hostile weapons and tactics
[608] What is electronic attack?
The division of EW involving the use of electromagnetic or directed engery to attack personnel, facilities, or equipment with the intent of degrading, neutralizing, or destroying enemy combat capability
[608] What is jamming?
The radiation or reradiation of signals to interfere with the operation of a radar receiver
[608] What are the predictable external factors that effect jamming?
Burn through range, victim radar characteristics, and jamming characteristics
[608] Jammers are divided into what two categories?
noise jamming and deception jamming
[608] What is chaff made out of and how does it work?
Chaff consists of a large number of metallic strips designed to match half the wavelength of the victim radar's RF. It absorbs and reradiates EM energy to create a radar echo
[609] What is electronic protection?
The part of EW that includes the measures taken to protect personnel, facilities, equipment..etc.
[609] What are the common transmitter fixes?
Frequency agility, CPACS, staggered PRF
[609] What is meant by frequency agility?
The ability of a radar to rapidly change from one frequency to another
[609] What are different types of EP receivers?
Linear, logarithmic, lin-log, and Dicke-fix receivers
[609] What type of antenna is added to provide for side lobe cancelling?
An omnidirectional side lobe reference antenna
[610] What term describes velocity elements parallel to the radar beam?
Radial Velocity
[610] What relationship between target movement and beam orientation would result in a radial velocity of zero?
the target movement would have to be perpendicular to the beam
[610] What purposes does the velocity azimuth display algorithm serve in the wsr-88d?
used to generate wind profiles
How are target velocities moving toward the radar expressed?
as negative values

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