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EPPP Parts & Functions of Brain


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Functions of the medulla; result of damage
Flow of information between brain and spinal cord

Coordinates swallow, cough, sneeze

Regulates breathing, heartbeat, blood pressure

Damage is often fatal
Functions of the cerebellum; result of damage
Balance, posture, sensorimotor learning, attention shifting

Small cerebellum linked to autism

Damage can produce ataxia (slurred speech, tremor, loss of balance)
Function of pons
Connects the halves of the cerebellum and helps integrate movements in right and left side of body.
Reticular formation functions
Respiration, cough, vomit, posture, locomotion, REM sleep
Reticular Activating System functions
Part of reticular formation

Consciousness, arousal, wakefulness

Screens sensory input especially during sleep and arouses executive parts of brain when warranted

Damage disrupts sleep and can produce permanent coma.
Thalamus functions
Relay station transmitting all sensory information except smell to appropriate areas of the cortex; also motor activity, language, memory

Korsakoff Syndrome results from damage and involves both amnesias and confabulation
Hypothalamus functions
Hunger, thirst, sex, sleep, body temperature, movement, emotional reactions

Suprachiasmatic nucleus (circadian rhythm or biorhythm)is here and damage to it can cause SAD

Damage can cause intense laughter or rage
Basal ganglia functions
planning, organizing, coordinating voluntary movement; regulating amplitude and direction of motor actions; sensorimotor learning; physical expressions of emotion such as smiling

Damage can result in Huntington's, Parkinson's, and Tourette's, mania, depression, OCD, psychosis
Limbic system
Contains amygdala and hippocampus

Primarily mediates emotions
attaches emotions to memories, recall of emotionally-charged experiences; directs motivational and emotional activities; receives olfactory signals
Processes spatial, visual, and verbal infromation and consolidates declarative memories (converts short-term to long-term).

Damage resultes in both amnesias
Frontal Lobe
Motor, Premotor, Prefrontal areas

Control of voluntary movements, Broca's area (speech production), emotion, memory, self-awareness, executive functions.
Parietal Lobe
Contains somatosensory cortex

Pressure, temperature, pain, proprioception, gustation

Damage disturbes spatial orientation, apraxia (skilled motor movement problem), somatosensory agnosia (tactile agnosia, asomatognosia, and anosognosia)

Lesion to right parietal lob: contralateral neglect

Lesion to left parietal lobe: ideational apraxia (can't carry out sequence of actions) ideomotor apraxia (can't obey simple motor command), and Gerstmann syndrome (finger agnosia, right-left confusion, agraphia, acalculia)
Temporal Lobe
Contains auditory cortex, Wernicke's area

Auditory sensation/perception; long-term declaratice memories

Damage causes auditory agnosia, auditory hallucinations, Wernicke's (receptive) aphasia; both amnesias.
Occipital Lobe
Contains visual cortex

Damage results in visual agnosia, visual hallucinations, cortical blindness

Left side damage: simultanagnosia (can't see >1 thing at a time)

Lesion at junction of occipital, temporal, and parietal lobes produces prosopagnosia (can't recognize familiar faces)

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