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Brainstem 3 and 4


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The PPRF on one side talks to CN IV on the ____ side. And via the ______ on the contra side.
Ipsi; MLF
The left frontal eye field will project neurons to the...
Contralateral PPRF
PPRF's function
Coordinated movement of both eyes in same direction with 2 different cranial nerves.
a lesion between CN III nucleus and CN VI nucleus in MLF
INO - Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia
In INO (Left MLF lesion), how do the eye positions appear WHEN
1. looking straight ahead
2. looking to the left
3. looking to the right
4. convergence
1. normal
2. normal
3. left eye stays straight, right eye turns normally with nystagmus
4. normal
The problem in INO is due to a faulty connection between
CN III exits through the...
interpeduncular fossa
Nuclei in the "eggs in the basket"
CN IV (MLF right below)
Pathway of the pupillary light reflex
optic nerve > chiasm and into both optic tracts > through lateral geniculate into occipital cortex > some fibers go to midbrin and stimulate Edinger-Westphal Nuclei bilaterally causing constriction!
Parasympathetic nucleus associated with CN III
Origin of sympathetic fibers going to the pupil
Superior cervical ganglion piggybacking on blood vessels to get into the eye.
Found on surface of one side of CN III
Parasympathetic fibers (EWN) that are prone to damage from nearby tumors or PCA berry aneurysms.
Lesion of EWN affects the...
pupil reflex. As tumor/aneurysm gets larger, can affect motor of III as well.
Vasa nervorum of CN III provides blood to the...
parasympathetic part of the nerve
Central blood vessel of CN III provides blood to the
motor part of the nerve
Patient presents with diplopia, but with pupils that work correctly...
Diabetic 3rd
Patient presents with normal eye movements, but only has one normal working pupil, or unequal pupils...
Neurological emergency (aneurysm, etc.)
In Mollaret's triangle, the red nucleus communicates with the ________ via the ________.
inferior olivary nucleus; central tegmental tract
In Mollaret's triangle, the contralateral dentate nucleus communicates with the ______ via the ________
red nucleus; superior cerebral peduncle
Lesion in central tegmental tract before fibers reach the inf. olivary nucleus. Presents as clicking in ear.
palatal myoclonus
What tracts are found in the cerebral peduncles?
corticospinal and corticobulbar
medial fibers of the cerebral peduncle
somatotropic region of the face
Melds into internal capsule
cerebral peduncle
Anterior 2/3 of posterior limb of internal capsule
Corticospinal and corticobulbar fibers
Posterior 1/3 of posterior limb of internal capsule
Sensory fibers headed into the post-central gyrus
Fibers that come off lateral geniculate and go to occipital lobe
Retrolenticular portion of internal capsule
A lacune in the leg portion of the corticospinal tract would cause
contralateral leg weakness. Possibly arm weakness and sensory defects
Pathway of corticospinal tract
enters in the internal capsule post. limb. Goes into cerebral peduncle into the pons. Fibers broken into fasicle, then go into pyramid and the lateral corticospinal tract decussates to opposite side. Ventral CST remains ventral
Nucleus not bilaterally innervated by CN VII
Lower half of CN VII. Sometimes, neither is CN XII
Lesion of CN VII after leaving the skull
Bell's palsy. Caused by viruses or parotid tumors. COMPLETE facial hemiparesis
Location of lesion sparing the forehead with bottom half hemiparesis
Corticobulbar tract. Considered stroke until otherwise proven.
Seam down middle of thalamus
intralaminar nuclei
Swelling in middle of thalamus
centromedian nucleus
Most caudal nuclei of thalamus
pulvinar and geniculate bodies
Branchium of inf. colliculus synapses with the
medial geniculate, functioning in hearing
Superior colliculus synapses with the
lateral geniculate (sight). Striped.
Tract that the geniculate bodies are a part of
Neurons from corpora quadrigemina go to motor neurons in the...
In caudal thalamus, this is one ot the intralaminar nuclei that separates the dorsal and ventral tier
centromedian nucleus
Receives the superimposed spinothalamic tract and medial lemniscus pathway
Receives the 2 heads of homunculi whic are the trigeminothalamic tract
Location of where stimulator placement will stop a right-sided tremor
Left ventral intermedial nucleus (Vim)
Rostrally replaces the substantia nigra
subthalamic nucleus
Stimulator here will help all Parkinson's symptoms on other side of body
Subthalamic nucleus. Damage here might cause hemibalismus.
Pathway from mammilary bodies to anterior thalamic nucleus...
mammilothalamic tract
Loop-de-loop pathway surrounding the zona insertia
Fields of Forel
Papez's loop pathway
hippocampus > fimbria > fornix > mammilary bodies > MTT > ant. thalamic nucleus > cingulate gyrus > cingulum > hippo..................
Alzheimer's patient with degeneration of the hippocampus will show a _____ of the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle
Function of the septal nuclei
Other inputs of septal nuclei
olfactory, and memory from diagonal band of Broca
Puts brakes on pleasure drive. Doesn't function well in OC people
nucleus accumbens septi
Brings cholinergic innervation to the hippocampus
Nucleus basalis of Mynert
Olfactory stria leading to hippocampus, amygdala, and rhinal cortex. Most important memory evoker.
Lateral olfactory stria
Olfactory stria leading to the septal nuclei and hypothalamus.
Medial olf. stria
Feeding nuclei of hypothalamus
lateral - feeding center
ventromedial - satiety center
Temperature nuclei of hypothalamus
Ant. and preoptic - heat sensory
Posterior - cold sensory and sleep arousal
Body rhythm nuclei
Posterior - cold sensory and sleep arousal. Works with reticular formation, feeding back into pineal gland (which releases melatonin).
Also, suprachiasmatic - circadian rhythm. Receives fibers from retina.
Supraoptic and Paraventricular nuclei release BOTH of these hormones into posterior pituitary
oxytocin and vasopressin.
Clumps of vasopressin and oxytocin heading into neurohypophysis
Herring bodies
Vein system connecting without capillary beds
portal system (anterior pituitary from hypothalamus)

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