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Chapter 17-18


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The large landmass that includes both Europe and Asia.
The shape and elevation of land in a region.
Middle Ages
A period that lasted from 500 to about 1500.
A word referring to the Middle Ages.
A Christian saint who converted the people of Ireland to Christianity.
A religious man who lived apart from society in an isolated community.
A communities of monks.
An Italian saint and monk, he created a set of rules for monks to follow
King of the Franks, he was a brilliant warrior and strong leader. He was crowned the Emperor of the Romans.
A warrior in medieval Europe who fought on horseback.
A knight who promised to support a lord in exchange for land in medieval Europe.
The system of obligations that governed the relationships between lords and vassals in medieval Europe.
William the Conquerer
A powerful French noble who conquered England, he brought feudalism to Britain.
A large estate owned by a knight or lord.
A worker in medieval Europe who was tied to the land on which he or she lived.
Eleanor of Aquitane
Queen of France and England, she was one of the most powerful women in Europe in the Middle Ages.
The code of honorable behavior for medieval knights.
A type of Japanese poem with three lines and 17 syllables that describes nature scenes.
To cast out from the church.
Pope Gregory VII
A powerful medieval pope, he fought with the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV over the power to choose church officials.
Emperor Henry IV
Holy Roman Emperor, he fought against pope Gregory VII over the power to choose church officials.
A long series of wars between Christians and Muslims in Southwest Asia, fought for control of the Holy Land from 1096 to 1291
Holy Land
The region on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea where Jesus lived, preached and died.
Pope Urban II
Medieval pope, he called on Christians to launch the First Crusade.
King Richard I
King of England, he led Christian soldiers in the Third Crusade. He earned the respect of his enemies as well as Christian soldiers fro his bravery and his fairness.
Muslim general, he led the Muslim forces during the Third Crusade.
Church officials.
religious order
A group of people who dedicate their lives to religion and follow common rules.
Francis of Assisi
Italian saint, he encouraged people to be kind to others and founded the Franciscan Order.
A member of a religious order who lived and worked among the public.
Thomas Aquinas
Dominican philosopher and teacher at the University of Paris. He wrote a book that argued that science and religion were related. Considered one of the greatest thinkers of the middle Ages.
natural law
A law that people believed God had created to govern how the world operated.
Magna Carta
A document signed in 1215 by King John of England that required the king to honor certain rights.
The lawmaking body that governs England.
Hundred Years' War
A long conflict between England and France that lasted from 1337 to 1453.
Joan of Arc
French pesant girl, she rallied the French troops during the Hundred Years' War.
Black Death
A deadly plague that swept through Europe between 1347 and 1351.
Religious ideas that oppose accepted church teachings.
The effort of Christians kingdoms in northern Spain to retake land from the Moors during the Middle Ages.
King Ferdinand
King of Spain, he and his wife Isabella completed the Reconquista. They forced Jews in Spain to become Christian or leave and banned Islam.
Queen Isabella
Queen of Spain, she completed the Reconquista. She and her husband banned Islam and forced Jews in Spain to become Christian or leave. She also paid for voyages of Christopher Columbus.
Spanish Inquisition
An organization of priests in Spain that looked for and punished anyone suspected of secretly practicing their old religion.

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