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history ews finals 7th grade


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what years do historians think the middle ages started and what event was the beginning of the middle ages?
500-1500 AD and the major event was the fall of the roman empire
know five barbarian tribes
goths, vandals, lombards, jutes, franks, saxons, angles, norsemen, frisians, burgundians,
why did the Eastern Roman Empire prosper while the Western Roman Empire crumled?
ERE: -well trained professional army -educated administrators -merchants who brought great wealth WRE: -raided by barbarians
where did the idea of the crusades come from?
Emperor Alexis asked Pope Urban to protect Constantinople from the Turks. Pope Urban thought that the people in his region would reunite if they fought together, so he created the Crusades.
why did common people go on the crusades?
Pope Urban told people he would get rid of taxes for those who go and if they went and died they would go to heaven
what was the ultimate objective of the crusades?
Pope Urban regain the holy lands and reunite Roman Catholic and Orthodox church under his rule
what were the motivations for the different classes of people to go on the crusades?
serfs: no daily hard labor, if they died they would go to heaven, no more taxes or debt and get out of jail free knights: got the land they won and got to fight kings: expand their empire and got the land they won
what was the name of the pope who called for the crusades?
pope urban the second
What year did the crusades begin and how long did they last and where does the word crusades come from?
began in 1095 and until 1099 was the 1st crusade but some poeple think its still going on. The word crusades comes from the latin word cruciata meaning marked with a cross
who was Peter the Hermit and what was he known for?
he was a poor French monk who looked like his donkey and started the People's Crusade; passionate speaker
Name three things common people learned while away on the crusades that changed their life style when they returned
-new foods and spices -concept of learning -comfortable, pretty clothing
briefly explain how or why feudalism rapidly declined after the crusades
fuedal lords and kings were away at war. land was up for grabs in a way and people started comunities with jobs not befor offered and nationalism grew. as this happened fuedalism fell.
define humanism
teaching about the relationship between man and nature instead of the relationship between man and God. also they started asking 'why?' and began thinking more sciencentificaly
define scholasticism
belief in science and technology instead of God and religion; finding the logical answer to something by proving or disproving it instead of making up stories
why were ancient manuscripts sought after by late medieval scholars?
-primary sources of daily life in the ancient world -copys were often incorrect -ideas/inventions that were lost were found again in the manuscripts
what was medieval theology?
-strict church and bible teaching/learning -study of christianity
according to the late medieval catholic belief man was what?
a misrable sinner
according to medieval catholic beliefs, to stand any chance of salvation (entry to heaven) man needed to go by what?
the 7 holy sacraments and live a good life and do what you're told
because priests were the only ones who could read and write, people depended on them for what?
-read testaments in Latin -preach to people in Latin -perform last rites and sacraments -oversee legal documents -perform weddings and funerals -collect tithes, knew everyones deepest secrets
the towering church spire served several purposes what were they?
-closest thing to heaven -reminds people that God is watching -spire bell told the time of day
describe 3 qualities of a gothic style painting or sculpture
-stiff and unrealistic -no emotion -bodies are disproportional -religious subject -no shadowing
why was it rare that medieval artists signed their work
It was rare because back then people didnt sign their work it was more of a chore to do art. They were working only for the god. If they signed their work the person would sound like they thought they were better than god.
what is a fresco and very basically how were they created
a fresco is a permanent painting done on a wall steps: 1. plaster wall or panel 2. use charcoal to blow an outline or sketch 3. draw darker outline over that 4. divide into squares 5. paint and let dry

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