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Intro to Chinese History Midterm


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"Friendship" reading
c. 100-150.  By Wang Fu, a spurned academic.  Criticized gap between Confucian societal values and the profiteering, luxury, individuality, and social differentiation of reality.  And brown-nosing.
"The Classic of Filial Piety"
Early Han-era.  Filial piety = basis of all virtue.  Promoted remonstration of unkingly ways.  Supposely from Confucius.  Ruler's duty to father of Heaven.  Rulers survive through morality.
Book of Manners
Confucian-era.  Intended to promote order, decorum.  Late became shallow.
Buddhism (fo-jiao)
100 CE in China.  Silk Road import from India.  Dominant in E/SE/C Asia for a long time.  Understood through Daoist terms.  Universal application of attempts to understand suffering.  Nirvana, reincarnation, karma.  Conf. alt
Probably originated during, caused Zhou decline.  Necessary to organize and supply the larger armies.  Gave states greater power.
Chinese feudalism.
Origins in Zhou period.  Decentralized system of lords, as in Europe, but with non-contractual obligations based on lavish gifts and (sometimes artificial) kinship.  Right to rule coudl be revoked.  Leads to autonomy, strife later.
Confucius (Kong Fuzi)
c. 551-479 BCE.  Founded Confucianism.  Never held an official post, but teachings were influential for millenia in government policy and bureaucratic training.  See "The Annalects" (by his students), "ru-jia" (School of
c. 300 BCE.  Impercievable way bereft of human corruption; concept of wuwei, or "doing nothing;" becoming so learned that you see the folly of human actions.  A sort of anti-establishment religion.
Debate on Salt and Iron
81 BCE.  Debate over effective government.  Learned: feed the people first; avoid profit, set examples.  Ministers: Feed people bycontrolling, managing; monopolies for cash; equable marketing.  Named after gov't monopolies.
Shang feature in which priests talked to the gods using heated oracle bones.  Afforded priests predictive, other powers.
Dong Zhongshu ("Heaven, Earth, and Man")
c. 179-104 BCE.  Wudi's minister; ID'd w/ elevating Confucianism/Confucian ruler.  Claimed that the emperor was key to maintaining alemental, societal, and political balances, connecting heaven, earth and man. 
Dynastic Order (through the Ming)
Xia?, Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han, Sui, Tang, Song, Ming
Eastern Han Dynasty
25-220 BCE.  Founded with defeat of Wang Mang by supposed Liu family descendants.  Social problems, old order persist through child emperors.  Disill. w/ Conf. among elites.  Daoism increases.  Marred by rebellions.
Eastern Zhou
c. 771-256 BCE.  Spring and Atumn and Warring States Period.  Marked by increasing autonomy of states and frequent warfare.  Source of 100 Schools of Thought.  Destruction of smaller states.
Four Truths of Buddhism
Life is suffering; suffering caused by desire;renounce desire to end suffering; follow certain paths to end desire.
Guan Zhong
c. 700 BCE.  During Zhou decline, decided that "ba" (hegemon) should use force to intervene and protect the weak king ("wang").  Ba became more powerul than king; force legitimized over nourishment.
Han features
Centralization, Confucian ideals/Legalist practices, territorial expansion, monopolies, independent farmers, early market economy, social stratification and contingent aristocracy, bureaucracy/Imperial U., remon. soc. rel.
Han Fei
c. 300 BCE.  Wrote the Han Feizi.  Legalist who used to be Xunzi's student.  Focuses on ruler, efficiency, fear of ruler, laws to prevent wrongdoing, meritocracy, all for the ruler.  Early Legalist.
Han society
Friendship, ideal meek, nurturing women (see texts on women), reality of free-er women with property rights, divorce
Imperial University
Found in 125 BCE.  Designed to train bureaucrats in the Confucian "classics." Created social class with power, wealth linked to bureaucracy.
King Zheng
Ruler of frontier Qin state who unified China through conquest in 221 BCE.  Founded the Qin dynasty.
c 600 BCE.  Possibly mythcial.  Author of "The Book of the Way and Its Power" and founder of Daoism.
Legalism (fa-jia)
700 BCE?.  Centralization of government, private land ownership, meritocray, strict laws to control people as resources - all for the ruler.  Important to Qin (and later...) dynasties.
Li Si
Contemporary (and possiible killer of) Han Fei.  Early Legalist; ex-Xunzist.  Chief adviser of future unifier of China.
Liu Bang
Founded Han dynasty in 202 BCE.  A functionary who usurped the Qin, he disliked scholars, but recognized the need for Confucianism.  Started with a semi-feudal system, but scaled it back.
Liu Che (Wudi)
Han emperor, 141-87 BCE.  Expansionist, monopolistic, centralizer.  Elevated Confucianism to state orthodoxy, despite Legalist-esque policies.  Supposedly Confucian.
Lord Shang Yang
400 BCE.  Authored "Book of Lord Shang." Argued for centralization, direct teaxation of private landholdings to pay for government (as opposed to feudalism and "well-field" system).
Mandate of Heaven
Zhou origin.  If Heaven is displeased with the king, will manifest its feelings through famine, flood, etc.  Persists through all of Chinese history; commonly used as justification of rebellious actions.  Justifies defeat of Shang.
Mencius (Mengzi)
c. 370-300 BCE.  Origin of "Book of Mencius."   Confucian.   Believed in cultivating innate good of humans.  Promoted rectification of name, Mandate of Heaven (open post).
Mohism (mo-jia)
Not influential until c. 19.  Founded by Mozi (c. 479-438 BCE).  Universal love, utilitarianism, anti-waste (includes music), pro-defensive war (offense is wasteful).
Organismic Unity
Chinese Heaven closely tied to our world.  Can express pleasure or displeasure at human actions.  Allows for Mandate of Heaven.
Qin features
Attempted centralization, bureaucracy, legalism, commanderies and counties, population regristation in 5s and 10s (taxation, labor, control), standaradized weights, measures, money, convict labor and public works, expansion, censorship.
Recommendation System
Han-era.  Bureaucrats supposedly chosen by those in system for their filial piety, loyalty, and benevolence.  Ended up as a good-old-boy system.  Allowed rich to maintain their positions.
Han-era concept.  Idea that the ruler should be advised of his unkingly errors by his subordinates.  Persists even through the Communist revolution - at the risk of the adivsors.  See "The Classic of Filial Piety."
Shang Dynasty Features
Urbanization, Agricultural Surplus, Metalworking, Patrilineal Society, Divination (see oracle bones), Writing (see oracle bones)
Shang Dynasty
c. 1600-1045 BCE.  Good archaeological evidence for its existence.  Sophisticated organization; dominated Yellow River basin.  Overlapped with Zhou.
Knights w/ origins in early S+A Period.  Used in limited warfare, but more like bureaucrats by the WS Period.
Shi Hunag Di
=King Zheng, "first august emperor."  Qin founder.  Ruled 221-210 BCE.  w/ minister Li Si, established a centralized, legalist state.  Condemned as tyrannical.
Sage-king.  Passed reign to minister.  Successor to Yao.
Siddhartha Gautama
c. 563-483 BCE.  Buddha Shakyamuni (The enlightened sage of the Shakya clan), originally of noble Himalayan background.
Silk Road
Expanded during the Han dynasty. Went W and NW from China trhough Central Asia; a trade relay network important to global trade for 1500 years.
Spring and Autumn Period
c. 722-256 BCE.  Named after "Spring and Autumn Annals."
The (Confucian) Way
551-479 BCE.  Refers to the "kingly way," in contrast to the "ba," etc.
The Hundred Schools of Thought
Eastern Zhou. Elite "priests" put ofrth ideas on how to rule, order the chaos.  These "masters" travel the states offering help.  Source of many Chinese philosophies/religions.
The Mahayana (Great Vehicle) School
Buddhist. Eastern Han-era; dominant Buddhist school.  Buddha god-like.  Bodhisattvas - proles can use halfway-beings to get to enlightenment (at delay of halfways.  Popularization of buddhism through this non-demanding regime.
The Qin Dynasty
221-206 BCE.
The Rectification of Name
c. 551-479 BCE.  Your title should fit your actions.  Kings should lead by virtue abd ritual.  Important to justification of rebellion/kingly actions.
The Sage0Kings
Yao, Shun, Yu.  Dates unknown.  Legendary, golde-age rulers.  Often referred to in Chinese docs.
Shang feature.  Allowed by agricultural surplus, taxation of farmers; leads to stratification of society, development of elites.  Part of increasing societal sophistication.
Usurpation of Wang Mang
Xin dynasty est., 9-23 CE.  Former regent.  Attempted reforms through idea of Well-Field system (eliminate social diff., large landholdings), stopping land market, redistributed land.  Peasants not mobilized, elites pissed; self-det.
Warring States Period
c. 403-221 BCE.  States officially declared autonomous.  150 states frequently at war.  Overlaps with fall of Zhou dynasty.
Way of the Celestial MAsters (Tianshi Dao)
Eastern Han-era.  Born of Confucian disillusionment.  "Celestial Masters" ("priests" claiming special knowledge) important.  Big part of culture.
Well-field system
Old Chinese land practice in which individual plots of land surrounded a common plot.  Produce given through lord to the king.  Not favored by Legalists; frequent reform target.  Proto-Legalist.
Western Han Dynasty
209 BCE - 9 CE.  Founded by Liu Bang, who overthrew the Qin.  Emphasis on Confucianism; Buddhism rises to prominence.  THE great Chinese dynasty.
Western Zhou
c. 1043-771 BCE.  More stable period.  Ends with sacking of the capital.
Xia Dynasty
Possible early Chinese dynasty.  Might have overlapped with Shang, despite writings.  One of many small early states.
Steppe confederation of late 200s BCE.  Alternately traded or wrred with China.  Driven back by Qin, but returned to prominence with end of dynasty.
c. 310-237 BCE.  Functionalist Confucian who promoted edu, ritual for social control/perfection of innately bad people.  Taught future Legalists.
Mythical sage-king.  Controlled floods, passed throne the Shun (rather than son).  Flood control important, considering Yellow River - model ruler.  Golden age.
Yellow Emperor
c. 5000 ya. Mythical.  Founded China, writing, calendar.  The cource of civilization.  Idelaized, ancient, great.
Sage-king.  Successor to Shun.  Also great flood controller (always important). Archeological evidence and later writings suggest possible reality.
Zhou Dynasty
c. 1045-256 BCE.  Important to Chinese imagination and as source of the 100 Schools of Thought.  Barbarian state, originally.  Western and Eastern Periods.
Zhou Features
Awesome king in Feudal system, Mandate of Heaven, Hundred Schools of Thought, regional autonomy
c. 369 BCE - 286 BCE.  Questioned reality.  Daoist non-interventionist.  Don't let people gain too much knowledge, or they get corrupted.  Human action creates conflict.

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