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c. ethical as long as the therapists cooperate with one another during the course of tx
Which of the following is not a necessary condition for a claim of malpractice against therapist:
a. the therapist must have had a duty to the client
b. the therapist must have acted in a negligent or otherwise improper manner
c. there mus
d. there must be no "reasonable doubt" that an alternative course of action was available
The correlation between two variables is equal or close to 0 when in a scatterplot:
a. the variability of Y scores at each value of X is equal to the total variability of Y scores
b. the variability of Y scores at each value of X is the same
a. the variability of Y scores at each value of X is equal to the total variability of Y scores
Your research study involves assessing the effects of two independent variables on three dependent variables. In this situation, you would choose to conduct a MANOVA to analyze the data you collect rather than separate factorial ANOVAs in order to:
d. control the experimentwise error rate - the MANOVA is used to simultaneously assess the effects of one or more iv on two or more dv - the more statistical comparisons made within a research study, the greater the likelihood of making a Type I error. By using the MANOVA to simultaneously assess the effects of the iv on the dvs the fewer the total number of statistical comparisons, the lower the probability of making a Type I error (or experimentwise error)
Dr. Gritz is conducting research which has potentially damaging effects for subjects. He has the best interests of his subjects in mind and wishes to ensure ethical research. In order to do so, he should:
a. ask a multi-disciplinary committee to sur
a. ask a multi-disciplinary committee to survey and approve the study on an ongoing basis
The fee for a 23yo woman suffering from depression is being paid by her parents. In terms of confidentiality, in this situation:
a. the parents are the holders of the privilege
b. the parents should be supplied with general info
c. the the
d. the therapist should, at the onset of tx, est a policy about confidentiality jointly with the daughter and her parents
When using an ABAB research design, causality is suggested when:
a. the target bx changes only when the tx is applied to each baseline
b. the target bx reverts to original baseline levels when the tx is withdrawn
c. the target bx is not al
b. The advantage of adding a second baseline phase is that it helps determine whether an observed change in the DV during the tx phase was in fact due to the IV. If the DV returns to its original baseline level, the researcher can be more certain that the observed effect is actually the result of the IV
A psychiatrist seeks to consult with you about a client of hers bec of your expertise in the area of concern to the client. In this sit:
a. you shouldn't discuss the case until a waiver has been obtained from the client
b. you shouldn't discuss
c. you can discuss as long as the id of the client is not revealed
An assumption for a one-way ANOVA is violated. The best course of action would be to use which of the following to analyze the data:
a. Mann-Whitney
b. Wilcoxon
c. Kruskal-Wallis
c. Kruskal-Wallis
______ is used to compare two independent groups
Mann-Whitney U test
_______ is used to compare two related groups.
Wilcoxon Matched-pairs test
_____ is a post-hoc test that is used to compare means. It requires that the same assumptions be met as the ANOVA
A legal guardian has been appointed by the court for a 9yo child after his biological parents are found guilty of child abuse. The legal guardian brings the child to you for tx. You should:
a. obtain permission from both of the child's bio parents b
d. provide the tx to the child as requested by the guardian
A young man is found guilty of driving while intoxicated and is required by the court to rec in-patient tx at an alcohol rehabilitation center. As a therapist working at the center, you should be aware that:
a. is isn't nec to have the man sign an i
d.although the court has ordered the tx, the client's right to confidentiality is not waiver. A court order is likely to be required for the release of info and would likely be limited to objective data
Alan has been rec tx from Dr. Larry, a psychiatrist, for several mos. Dr. L suspects that Alan's self-esteem probs may be related to a learning disability that has caused academic and occupational failure throughout Alan's life and, to confirm his suspic
c. recommend to Alan that he discuss the matter with Dr. L. before making an appt with her
Dr. Green, a psycho in private practice, sets his clients' fees according to their ability to pay as determined by their yearly income. some are paying a very low fee or no fee, while others are paying a fee that is considerably above-average for the loc
legal and ethical/sliding scale fees
A slightly overweight psych assistant wants to lose 15 pounds. The psycho who employs her is wellknown for the use of bx techniques for weight reduction. The asst asks the psycho if she will accept her as a client. The asst is willing and able to pay the
d. acted unethically because her dual roles as therapist and employer may create a conflict
With regard to the relationship between legal and ethical violations:
a. an ethical violation necessarily constitutes a legal violation
b. an ethical violation does not constitute a legal violation
c. a legal violation necessarily constitu
d. a legal violation may constitute an ethical violation
A psychologist conducts a custody eval for a divorce proceeding. In terms of making a specific recommendation about custody, the psychologist should:
a. avoid making a recommendation and, instead, leave the final decision to the court
b. make a
d. make a recommendation only if it is based on adequate psychological data and consideration of the best interests of the chiild
In unusual cases, a psychologist allows clients to self-administer the MMPI at home. This is
a. unethical under any condition
b. ethical as long as the clients have been informed of the need to maintain test security
d. ethical as long as
d. ethical as long as the psychologist can demonstrate that it was required by the client's welfare and precautions have been taken to maintain test security.
You receive a request from a licensed clinical social worker for the assessment results (including raw test data) for a former client of yours. You should
a. send the info as requested only after making sure that the client has signed a release
b. send the info as requiested only if you feel the social worker is qualified to interpret the data and after making sure that the client has signed a release
Research on parenting styles has shown that a combination of a moderate degree of control with warmth and responsiveness has which of the following effects on children:
a. beneficial effects on social development but little or no effect on academic
b. beneficial effects on both social development and academic achievement
The use of Jungian dreamwork in therapy with Hispanic clients is:
d. appropriate mostly for clients who are highly acculturated into the anglo culture
As the result of head trauma, a young man experiences damage to the primary motor cortex in the left cerebral hemisphere. This is most likely to have which of the following effects:
a. loss of voluntary movement in his right hand and fingers
a. loss of voluntary movement in his right hand and fingers - motor cortex is believed to be involved in the regulation of voluntary movements
In an open family system, the dynamics within the family structure are influenced by:
a. factors within the family system and factors outside the family system
b. factors within the family system only
c. factors outside the family system o
a. factors within the family system and factors outside the family system
If a therapist is treating a client from a minority culture group, the therapist should
a. recognize the importance of cultural differences
a. duh
A sudden loud noise would elicit which of the following reflexes from a one month old infant:
a. Babkin
b. Darwinian
c. Moro
d. Babinski
c. Moro reflex
The _____ reflex occurs in response to an object being placed against both of an infant's palms.
The _____ reflex occurs in response to placing an object in the infant's hand.
The _____ reflex is produced by tickling the middle of the soles of the infant's feet.
A researcher administers a drug to Bonzo, a monkey, that will inhibit RNA synthesis during and some time after Bonzo is learning a simple task. this will most likely have which of the following effects:
a. impaiir Bonzo's ability to learn the task a
b. RNA is necessary for protein synthesis, so inhibiting RNA synthesis will also inhibit protein synthesis Protein synthesis is necessary for long-term memory.
Protein synthesis does not seem to be necessary for _____ or _______ memory.
short & intermediate
Which of the following personality characteristics has most consistently shown gender differences in children?
a. sociability
b. aggression
c. warmth
d. competition
b. aggression
REM sleep is ordinarily preceded by a period of Stage 2 sleep except in:
a. elderly adults
b. infants
c. insomniacs and long-sleepers
d. infants and elderly adults
b. infants
In fants, an EEG indicates only two distinct sleep patterns: _____ and _____.
REM & NREM/quiet
In the MMPI, which of the following could be considered a suppressor variable?
a. D
b. F
c. K
d. L
c. K - correction factor
According to Freud, reaction formation serves as a defense mechanism against
a. anxiety
b. the pleasure principle
c. the conscience
d. the Oedipal conflict
a. anxiety
Which of the following best characterizes the nature of the cricism that boys and girls tend to receive from teachers in celementary school:
a. girls receive critism directed at their bx, whereas boys receive critism directed at their ability
b. boys receive criticism directed at their behavior, whereas girls receive criticism directed at their ability
The research on facial expression of emotion has demonstrated that:
a. facial expressionn is highly variable from culture to culture, implying that it is a learned bx
b. facial expressions among infants are similar from culture to culture, but
there are several universal facial expressions that may be mediated in terms of intensity by cultural factors
People who have had strokes that affected the left anterior cerebral hemisphere are most likely to exhibit which of the following:
a. depression and worry
b. apathy
c. denial of feelings of depression
d. flight of ideas and grandiosit
a. depression and worry - damage to the left hemisphere is associated with catastrophic reactions, which may include depression, anxiety, worry, and other negative emotional stages
The left cerebral hemisphere appears to regulate _____ emotions.
What is a likely consequence of right hemisphere damage?
What is associated with damage to the right posterior inferior frontal lobe?
denial of feelings of depression
What is produced by damage to certain agreas of the right hemisphere?
flight of ideas and grandiosity
At which stage in Erikson's model of psychosocial development does a person come to terms with her mortality?
a. intimacy vs. isolation
b. generativity vs. stagnation
d. identity vs. role confusion
d. integrity vs. dispair
d. duh
Which of the following individuals is at highest risk for migraine headache:
a. a 35yo female who is perfectionistic and ambitious
b. a 60yo female who is sensitive and conscientious
c. a 35yo male who is competittive and stressed
a. higher for females; onset is between puberty and mid-life; personality characteristics have been linked to perfectionism, neatness, restraint, and ambitiousness
According to DSM, a dx (versus an associated) feature of Antisocial Personality Disorder is:
a. inflated sense of self
b. superficial charm
c. lack of remorse
d. lack of empathy
c.lack of remorse... the other choices are associated features of the disorder
The presence of which of the following suggests the dx is Social Phobia rather than Agoraphobia?
a. social situations are avoided due to fear of humiliation or embarrassment
b. an absence of the physiological symptoms associated with a panic at
d. increased anxiety in feared situations when accompanied by a trusted companion
Individuals with _____ typically prefer to be with a trusted companion when in a fearful situation, whereas, individuals with _____ may feel more anxious due to the potential scrutiny by a companion.
Agoraphobia; Social Phobia
A mo complains that her 10yo son has been misbehaving a lot lately. He refuses to do anything he is asked, has been staying out late at night, starting fights with his classmates, and has been caught lying on numerous occasions. The mo states that his mi
b. Conduct Disorder (Adjustment Disorder can only be considered if the symptoms do not meet the diagnostic criteria for another disorder)
What is the dx when symtoms are more severe than is characteristic of Oppositional Defiant Disorder?
Conduct Disorder
What's the dx when there are isolated incidents of antisocial behavior in a child?
Child Antisocial Behavior
In a study of memory, a researcher displays the letter V on a screen for a brief period of time. After removing the letter subjects are asked to recell what they saw. The researcher found that several of the subjects reported seeing the wrong letter. The
b. B The confusion during recall is for letters that sound alike, which supports the theory that information is usu stored acoustically in short-term memory
Research on the effects of normal aging on memory has found that
a. episodic memory is affected more than semantic or procedural memory
b. semantic memory is affected more than episodic or procedural memory
c. procedural memory is affected
A. Normal aging has been found to most affect episodic memory which continas memory for specific events including one's autobiography
_____ memory is memory for facts and rules.
_____ memory refers to memory for how to do things and are less affected by normal aging.
Research has generally found that job enrichment:
a. inc job performance and to a lesser degree, job satisfaction part among blue collars
b. increases job satisfaction and decreases absenteeism, particularly among younger, well-educated employe
B. Job enrichment involves redesigning a job in order to enable workers to have more challenge, responsibility, decision-making authority, and opportunities for advancement
Which of the following are known as the Big 5 personality traits?
a. agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, extraversion, and openness
b. aggressiveness, assertiveness, compulsiveness, defensiveness, and gregariousness
c. d
a. agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability extraversion, and openness - remain relatively stable esp after age 30
Broca's aphasia is to Ernicke's aphasia as:
a. the frontal lobe is to the temporal lobe
b. the temporal lobe is to the frontal lobe
c. the frontal lobe is to the parietal lobe
d. the parietal lobe is to the temporal lobe
a. the frontal lobe is to the temporal lobe - Broca's area is located in the frontal lobe; Wernicke's area is located in the temporal lobe
The ____ controls somatosensory information (sense of touch, temp, pain)
parietal lobe
Which of the following neurotransmitters is most associated with Tourette's Disorder?
a. serotonin
b. dopamine
d. acetylcholine
b. dopamine
______ such as Haloperidol (Haldol) are often used to control the tics in Tourette's Disorder by affecting the dopamine level.
Antipsychotic meds
A patient taking clozapine begins exhibiting symptoms of muscle rigidity, tachycardia, sweating, hyperthemia, and altered consciousness. This is most characteristic of:
a. Tardive Dyskinesia
b. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
c. Extrapyrami
b. neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Muscle stiffness, shuffling, slurred speech and akathesia (restlessness) and dystonia (muscular spasms) can result from
antipsychotic use (extrapyramidal side effects)
Restlessness is called:
Muscular spasms are called:
In the Adult Attachment Interview a 30yo woman reports having had a very good childhood, yet, when asked, fails to provide any specific examples of what made it very good. When she is reunited with her 14mo child, who was placed in a strange situation, t
a. he'll ignore his mother - the mo appears to have what's known as a dismissing pattern of attachment. People with this pattern tend to devalue attachment relationships, although they speak positively of them. 3/4 of their children have an avoidant attachment pattern
he'll be ambivalent towards his mother - what attachment pattern?
resistant - preoccupied parent
he'll run to her and hug her?
secure child/secure parent
In his theory of attachment, Bowlby referred to the structures which hold cognitive representations of self and others as:
a. schemas
b. internal working models
c. representations of interactions that have been generalized
d. internal
b. internal working models - describes the cognitive representations that children develop of themselves and others.
Confidence intervals are used in order to:
a. calculate the test's mean
b. calculate the standard deviation
c. calculate the standard error of measurment
d. estimate true scores from obtained scores
d. estimate true scores from obtained scores
The ______ is used to construct confidence intervals.
standard error of measurement
During an initial session with a new adult client, you realize the you are already treating her mother. The primary problems with continuing to see this new client has to do with:
a. confidentiality
b. multiple relationships
c. conflict of
c. conflict of interest
The use of deception in research is acceptable:
if it is justified by the study's propsective value; if equally effective alternatives are not feasible; and subjects are debriefed as soon as possible
If you receive a subpoena to appear in court regarding one of your clients, you should:
a. recopy all of your notes so they are typed and not handwritten
b. eliminate all referral data from the file
c. eliminate anything from the file rega
d. organize and discuss - shouldn't tamper with the records in any way
A couple comes to therapy complaining that all their conversations end in arguments. This is characteristic of which pattern of communication?
a. symmetrical
b. complimentary
c. pseudohostility
d. mystification
a. symmetrical - communication patterns can be characterized as either symmetrical or complimentary.
In ______ communication there is equality between the partners, however, this can result in competition and conflict.
In ____ communication patterns there is inequality, with one partner taking a dominant role and the other a subordinate role.
______ presents as superficial bickering in order to avoid real conflict.
In _____ the person uses denial to mask what is really going on.
Research has shown that during normal aging:
a. crystalized intelligence and fluid intelligence increase
b. crystalized intelligence and fluid intelligence decrease
c. crystalized intelligence remains stable or may increase and fluid intel
c. crystalized intelligence remains stable or may increase and fluid intelligence decreases
_____ refers to the ability to recall and use learned information.
_____ refers to the ability to solve problems, form concepts, and see complex relationships.
fluid intelligence
A Jungian archetype is:
a. a role people play in relationships
b. a structural component of the collective unconscious
c. an unconscious perspective of the world gained through personal experience
b. a structural component of the collective unconscious - inherited from the life experiences of all of the human race and affects one's perceptions of the world
What is an unconscious perspective of the world gained through personal experience?
personal unconscious
Freud's psychosexual stages of development are based on:
a. various levels of consciousness
b. interpersonal conflicts which develop during specific age intervals
c. areas of the body that experience sexual excitability in a fixed sequence
c.a reas of the body that experience sexual excitability in a fixed sequence
Interpersonal conflicts which develop during specific age intervals refers to:
Erickson's theory of personality
Terrie Moffitt distinguishes between adolescent-limited and life-course persistent antisocial behavior. Two of the distinguishing variables cited are age of onset and duration of symptoms. Another variable which distinguishes them is:
a. level of mo
d. type of offenses
Moffitt's theory of antisocial bx describes two types:
life-course persistent and adolescent-limited type
_____ and _____ are variables that can distinguish between adolescents who do not engage in antisocial bx and those who do.
age of onset of puberty; access to antisocial peers
A psychologist is asked to evaluate and determine whether or not an adolescent who had committed a violent crime would be a good candidate for a rehabilitation program in lieu of a jail sentence. What is the single best prognostic indicator of recidivism
d. number of previous arrests
When multiple predictors are used what are the Big Three?
no or priors, sch achievment, hx of drug use
A candidate for the psych licensing exam wants to maximize her long-term memory of all of the study materials. The most effective learning strategy would be to use:
a. spaced practice
b. massed practice
c. elaborative rehearsal
c. elaborative rehearsal - - thinks about the meaning of new info and its relation to info already in memory
Maintenance rehearsal is another term for
rote repetition
As the result of a selection test used by a logging company, it was found that they hired only 1 woman for every 10 female applicants and 3 men for every 10 male applicants. They could continue to use these tests if:
a. they don't discriminate again
d. the tests are valid and there are no alternative procedures - multiply 30% by 80% = 24% to determine the minimum selectionrate needed for females to avoid adverse impace. Since the female selection rate is 10%, which is less than 24%, there is adverse impact.
Previous research indicated that individuals with Type A personalities had an increased risk for coronary heart disease. However, subsequent research has found that only certain aspects of this personality type are predictive of heart disease. One of the
b. hostility/anger
Symptoms characteristic of benzodiazepine withdrawal include:
a. anxiety, insomnia, nausea, transicnet hallucinations
b. dysphoria, fatigue, insomnia, unpleasant dreams
c. dysphoria, nausea, muscle aches, diarrhea
a. anxiety, insomnia, nausea, transcient hallucinations
In recent years, the survival rate for children with acute lymphacytic leukemia has risen to at least 50% due to advances in tx. Research on the impact of these tx on cognitive ability in children have generally found that:
a. CNS chemo is associate
c. Both CNS chemotherapy and irradiation are associated with cognitive deficits
A high school student, interested in an acting career, is afraid of disappointing his father who always wanted his son to become a doctor. After little deliberation, the young man accounces to his family that he will become a doctor. According to Marcia,
b. identity foreclosure
Identity ___ describes young people who have not undergone an identity crisis nor have committed to an identity.
Identity diffusion
______ occurs when a person is confused, having an identity crisis, and is actively exploring different options.
Identity Moratorium
In order to provide psychotherapy to client from diverse ethnic groups, psychos should obtain adequate cross-cultural training. One of the best approaches to receive this training is through:
a. being monitored by a colleague
c. ongoing trainin
c. ongoing training and education
You are working in a clinic as a psychologist and your supervisor, who is working on her Ph.D. in psychology, wants to begin conducting family therapy. Since this is an area which you have expertise in, ahse asks you to be the consulting supervisor. In t
a. you should refer the supervisor to someone else - multiple relationships
When working with ethnically, linguistically, and racially diverse populations, a therapist should emphasize:
a. acculturation
b. client's individual goals
c. the political, social and economic affects on mental health
b. the client's individual goals
Prior to 1982 research found little benefit to ethnic matching of client and therapist. More recent research has shown that it is related to:
a. improved outcomes for all ethnic groups
b. increased tx length for AA but decreased tx for Asian-Am
c. increased tx length and decreased dropout rates
A depressed white middle aged man is at the highest risk for suicide if he has been
a. divorced for 1 year, has somatic complaints, and constriction of affect
b. divorced for 5 years, is overtly hostile, and does not want help
c. divorced
a. divorced for 1 year, has somatic complaints, and construction of affect - highest risk during the first year following divorce
______ rather than overt hostility, as well as, certain illnesses increase the risk of suicide.
Constriction of affect
Which of the following statements is most true regarding the tx of functional enuresis?
a. imipramine is more effective than moisture alarms in the long-term
b. moisture alarms are more effective than imipramine in the long-term
c. hypnosi
b. moisture alarms are more effective than imipramine in the long-term
After being exposed to a loud noise while playing with a rat, Watson's 11mo old Little Albert not only avoided the rat, but also avoided a rabbit, a dog, and cotton. This is an example of:
stimulus generalization
_____ occurs when a conditioned stimulus (CS) elicits not only the CR but other responses similar to it.
Response generalization
______ uses classical conditioning to reduce or eliminate an undesirable behavior.
Aversive counterconditioning
According to Holland, a person who enjoys taking engines apart and rebuilding them would be categorized as:
a. conventional
b. realistic
c. enterprising
d. artistic
b. realistic
The ____ type prefers manipulating data.
The ____ type seeks economic or professional achievment through manipulating others.
The ___ type is creative, introspective, and nonconforming.
The "dopamine hypothesis" was developed to explain which of the following?
a. Schizo
b. Parkinsons
c. Mult sclerosis
a. Schizo
A client with diabetes mellitus develops cognitive impairment. A likely diagnosis would be:
a. Alzheimer's dementia
b. Vascular dementia
c. Parkinson's disease
d. Pick's disease
b. Vascular dementia
Apraxis is a:
a. inability to execute purposeful movements
b. uncomfortable feeling of motor restlessness and an inability to sit still
c. inability to use or understand language
d. contiion involving slurred speech and a loss of bala
a. inability to execute purposeful movement
____ is incoordination, often accompanied by slurred speech
A 1yo chold is placed in a strange situation and appears to be uninterested in the environment and exhibits little distress when his mother leaves the room. According to Ainsworth, the child most likely has which of the following attachment patterns?
b. avoidant - and avoids contact with mother when she returns
R-squared is used as an indicator of:
a. the no of values that are free to vary in a statistical calculation
b. the variability of scores
c. how much your ability to predict is improved using the regression line
d. the relationship be
c. how much your ability to predict is improved using the regression line. - compared to not using it The most possible improvment is 1 and the least is 0.
the relationship between two variables that have aq nonlinear relationship is:
coefficient eta
In accordance with the Ethics Code, prior to resigning from a mental health clinical, a psycho should:
a. destroy all records
b. take them with her
c. remove any obsolete data from client records
c. remove any obsolete data from client records - doesnot specify how long to maintin records, however requires psychos to dispose of records in accordance with the law (which varies from state to state)
After doing poorly on a geometry test, a student concludes that she is stupid, despite the fact that she usually receives A's and B's in all of her other classes. According to Beck, this would be an example of:
a. Personalization
b. dichotomous
c. selective abstraction - occurs when one focuses on a detail that is taken out of context, at the expense of other information
_____ is when external events are incorrectly attributed to oneself.
If the predictor of a selection test is raised, this will:
a. increase the probability of true positives
b. increase the probability of false positives
c. decrease the probability of true positives
a. increase the probability of true positives - positive is used to designate those selected or hired. Negatives refer to those not selected or hired. True refers to a correct decision and false refers to an incorrect decision

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