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Conversion disorder
symptoms involve voluntary motor or sensory functioning and suggest a serious neurological or other medical condition. due to psychological factors: stressors or conflicts
la belle indifference
lack of conern about symptoms
Etiology of conversion disorder
PRimary gain and secondary gain
Primary Gain
symptom keeps an internal conflict or need out of conscious awareness
secondary gain
symptom helps the individual avoid an unpleasant activity or obtain support from the environment
differential diagnosis for conversion disorder
conversion disorder is often difficult to distinguish from actual medical illness. However, CD usually involves the following 1) lack of concern about one's symptoms 2). failure for symptoms to conform to actual disease. 3). tendency of symptoms to be selective (can use for some activities).
factitious disorder and Malingering vs. Conversion disorder
facticious and malingering are voluntarily produced or feigned.
Pain disorder
pain that is sufficiently severe to warrent clinical attention that cannot be fully accounted for by a medical condition
unrealistic preoccupation with a fear of having or the belif that one has, a serious illness based on a misinterpretation of a bodily symptom.
-usually doctor shops
-resists referals for mental health tx.
differential diagnosis for hypocondriasis
physical symptoms are not of delusional intesity as it is with psychotic disorder.
-willing to consider not having a disease and that his fears are exaggerated.
Body dysmorphic disorder
preoccupation with a defect in appearance such as spots or the skin, facial swelling or excessive facial hair. The defect is eitherimagined or excessively concerned about it if a slight physical defect is actually present.
Factitious disorder
a person with this disorder has an intrapsychic need to fulfill a sick role and therefore intentionally produce or feign physical or psychological symptoms. They are overly dramatic or vague and inconsistent when relating their history.
Munchasen's syndrom by proxy
aka Factitious disorder by Proxy. A care taker or parent intentionally produces symptoms for the child. Warning signs: Symptoms are not present when caretaker is not there. Recurrent inexplicable illness.
Form of child abuse.
Factitious disorder vs. Malingering
Facticious disorder is to fulfill a intrapsychic need.

Malingering disorder, people fake illness to recieve some sort of compensation or to avoid doing something.
Person also has antisocial personality disorder.
Dissociative disorders
disruption of consciousness, identity, memory or perception of the environment and not due to medical condition or substance abuse.
-dissociative amnesia
-dissociative fugue
-dissociative identity disorder.
-Depersonalization disorder
Dissociative amnesia
inability to recall important personal information that is not due to ordinary forgetfullness. Usually related to traumatic or stressful experiences.
Dissociative fugue
An unexpected travel away from work or home.A person cannot recall his identity or past and therefore my partially or fully assume a new identity. During recovering phase, the person cannot remember what happened during his fugue state.
Dissociative identity disorder
formly known as multiple personalities. It is the existence of two or more distinct identities or personalities in one individiual. Each has it's own pattern of perception of relating to the environment or self. Two personalities can take control and transition is usually abrupt and due to stress. Reports of severe physical or sexual abuse in child hood.
Depersonalization Disorder
one or more episodes of depersonalization which involve a feeling of detachemnt or estrangement from others. Reality testing remains in tact
sexual dysfunctions
characterized by a disturbance in the sexual response cycle or by pain related to the sexual intercourse.
Hypoactive Sexual desire disorder
Deficient or absense of sexual fantasies or desires
Sexual aversion disorder
Extreme aversion to and avoidance of gential sexual contact with sexual partner
Male erectile disorder
Inability to attain or maintain an adequate erection
Female sexual arousal disorder
Inability to attain or maintain an adequate lubrication swelling response of sexual excitement
Female orgasmic disorder/male orgasmic disorder
Delay in, or absense of orgasm following a normal sexual excitement phase
Premature ejaculation
orgasm and ejaculation iwth minimal sexual stimulation before on or shortly after penetration and before the person desires it
genital pain associated with sexual intercourse
Involuntary spasms of the pubococygeus muscle in the outer third of the vagina which interferes with sexual intercourse
Treatment for sexual disorders
seek medical treatment first then behavioral or cognitive
Characterized by intense recurrent sexual urges, fantasies or behaviors involving either non human objects, humiliations of self or others, children or other nonconsenting partners.
Treatment for paraphilias
covert sensitization and satiation therapy
Gender identity disorder
when a person feels the strong persistent identification with the opposite sex and expereinces discomfort with his or her own sex. Feels inappropriate in the gender role of that sex. Therefore wants to be the ooposite sex and often takes on stereotypical roles of the opposite sex.
Primary sleep disorders
sleep disorders not related to any medical or substance use or mental disorder
Sleep disorders are usually divided into what two categories?
Dyssomnia and parasomnias
Dyssomnias disorders are characterized by
disturbances in the amount of sleep, the quality of sleep and time of sleep
-Primary insomnia
-Primary hypersomnia
-Breathing related sleep disorder
-Circadian rhythm sleep disorder.
Primary insomnia
Difficulty falling asleep or the presence of nonrestorive sleep for one month
Primary hypersomnia
Excessive sleepiness for one month. As evidence by prolong sleep or daytime sleep episodes
irresistible attacks of restorative sleep accompanied by cataplexy or intrusion of REM sleep during the transition between sleep and wakefulness
Breathing related sleep disorder
Disturbances in sleep due to lack of breathing from sleep apnea or central alveolar hypoventilation
circadian rhythm sleep disorder
A pattern of sleep disruption involving excessive sleep or insomnia due to a mismatch betwen the individual's natural slep wake cycle and the requirements of his or her schedule
involve behavioral or physiological abnormalites during sleep or in the sleep wakefulness transition
nightmare disorder
repeated awakenings from frightening dreams that threaten self esteem, survival or security. The patient usually recalls in details these dreams
Sleep terror disorder
abrupt awakening from sleep beginning with a panicky scream or cry. It is very hard to awake someone from this state and when they do they are often confused and don't recall the dream. They show signs of fear during the sleep terror.
Sleep walking disorder
walks during sleep. Unresponsive to attempts to be awoken has blank stares. Occurs during slow wave sleep.
anorexia nervosa
1. Refusal to maintain a normal body weight
2. intense fear of gaining weight
3. distorted body image
4. in females amenorrhea
The restricting type
(anorexia nervosa)
weight loss is accomplished by dieting, fasting or excessive exercise. There is no binging and purging
The binge -eating/purging Type
weight loss is accomplished by binge eating and purging during anoretic episode
Bulima Nervosa
recurrent episodes of binge eating that is accompanied by a sense of lack of control, inappropriate compensation (binging) and self evaluation influenced by body shape and size
antisocial personality disorder
the person over 18 had no regard and violates the rights of others. He or she must have had conduct disorder when they were 15 and have three of the following symptoms since 15. Failure to conform to social norms with respect to social laws, deceitfulness, impulsivitiy, reckeless disregard for the safety of self and others, consistent irresponsibility and lack of remorse
antisocial personality disorders
usually violate the law and manipulate others for sex, money, power or other personal gain and persistently lie.
Individuals with Antisocial personality disorders often have ___________levels of anxiety and arousal.
Lower than average
what makes individuals with anti social personality disorder insensitive t opunishment and other aversive consequences?
having lower than average levels of anxiety and arousal
Why are antisocial personality disorders difficult to treat?
individuals with this disorder often are resistent to treatment and more interested in manipulating the therapists.
Borderline personality disorder
pervaisive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self image and affect and marked impulsivity.
at least five sypmtoms must be present to diagnose a border line personality disorder
1. fear of abandonment 2)pattern of unstable relationships that is marked with idealization and devaluation 3. instability of sense of self or self image. 4. impulsivity in at least two areas that are self damaging. 5 recurrent threats of sucide or gestures, 6. affective instability, chronic feelings of emptiness.
Individuals with borderline personality disorder fear what?
Abandonment. They may engage in self destructive behaviors inorder to prevent others from leaving them.
relationships and borderline personality
intial engagement includes idealization but is quickly followed by devaluation and disillusionment.
Histrionic personality disorder
individuals are constantly seeking attention and emotionality. They feel uncomfortable when not in center of attention, interactions w/ others are inappropriately sexual or provocative, they have rapidly shifting or shallow emotions, impressionistic speech lacking in detail, exagerrated expression of emotion, easily influenced by others and considers relationships to be more intimate than they are (five of these)
Indiviudals with histrionic personality disorder tend to. ... however they quickly __________ their appeal because these individuals consistently demand to be __________
Draw attention to themselves and easily attract new aquaintainces.


the center of attention
narcisstic personality disorder
pervaisive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration and lack of empathy.
list at least five symptoms necessary for narcisstic personality disorder
1. grandiose sense of self importance; preoccupied with fantiasies of unlimited success power, beauty , love,; believes she is unique, requires excessive admiration, sense of entitlement, interpersonality exploitative, lacks empathy
individuals with narcisistic personality disorder often have a _________sense of themselves and believe________________
over inflated.

that other's feel the same way about them
avoidant personality disorder
person has a pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation
list four characteristics of avoidant personality
Avoids going to school or work for fear of critism, rejection or disapproval, doesn't get involved with people unless they are sure they will be liked, preoccupied with concerns of being criticized or rejected, views self as being socially inept, inferior or unappealing to others. Not willing to take risks
______________and ___________are useful for improving self confidence while ____________with relaxation training can help reduce social anxiety
Assertiveness training and social skills training
Dependant personality disorder
exceesive need ot be taken care of which leads to submissive and clingy behaviors and fears of separation.
List five characteristics of dependant personality
doesn't make decisions with out advice from others. Goes out of their way to seek nurturance from others. Does not disagree with others for fear of loss of support. Needs others to assume responsibility of their lives. Has difficulties intiating projects on their own
Obsessive -compulsive personality disorder
individual is preoccupied wiht orderliness, perfectionism and mental and interpersonal control which have the effect of severely limiting flexibility, openness and and effiency
List at least five characteristic symptoms
preoccupied with details that major point of activity is lost, perfectionism, excessive devotion to work preductivity that excules leisure activites and friendships, overconscientious and inflexible about morality, ethics and values. ubable to discard worn out or orthless objects, reluctant to delgate work to others unless they are willing to do it his way
What is the purpose of direct social work?
To increase social functioning
To alleviate personal dysfunction
promote social justice
The purpose of social work is to . . .
increase social functioning. Social workers attempt to increase the fit between human needs and resources and environment. Adequate fit increases the probability that the individual will gain personal fullfillment and become a productive member of society
WHat are the human needs and the environmental resources that can fill them?
Basic needs: shelter,food clothes can be fulfilled by social welfare systems, economic systems
Personal fullfillment can be filled by education, religious organizations, recreation;
Postive self image: Fulfilled my nuturance, acceptance, love and affirmation
emotional: companionship, self worth, belonging can be filled by friends, family, social network, and cultural reference groups.
What three ways do social workers increase socail functioning in individuals?
Provide prompt services to individuals at risk to prevent the development of dysfunction. To rehabilitate those whose functioning is limited by physical and mental disability. Eliminate and remedy problems that have already occured.
what is the importance of alleviating personal dysfunction (a purpose of direct social work).
Because of personal dysfunction clients cannot access the resources that are vailiable to them. Alleviating peronal disfunction by helping clients aquire interpersonal skills and let go of emotions impending their personal functioning.
psychosocial assessment
enables socialworker to thoroughly explore a client's problem and determine a client's expectations about therapy. Examines all aspect of the client's life both positive and negative. Leads to an understanding of the client's world
Problem system
Consist of three interacting systems that create or maintain the problem. Intrapersonal (biophysical and psychological), interpersonal( family, other relationships) and environment(support system and access to needed resources.
Example of how problem system create or maintain a problem
A person might be experiencing depression (intrapersonal). Because of this he is unable to reach out and interact with his family or friends (interpersonal). Lack of support in turn makes it hard for him to recover and he continues to remain in a depressive state. Furthermore being in an depressive state makes it difficult for him to access the avaliable resources (environmental) that would enable him to recover. Furthermore, social isolation (environmental) could lead to lowered self esteem (intrapersonal).
What the social worker should be asking during the interview.
The social worker should be inquiring about many other factors related to the client's life. This includes family history, how he related to family members, marital status of parents. Relationship status of the client. Living situation.
what social workers should ask during psycho social assessment Part II
Health and physical functioning: Because physical health can affect his psychosocial functioning it is important that health information is gathered. SOcial workers should encourage their clients to see a physician for a physical. The social worker should know the client's medical history, hospilization, diseases, whether or not and when he used drugs and how much.
Psychosocial assessment factors part III.
Interpersonal relationships: Social workers need to ask clients about their past and present relationships with friends and family and significant others and how he percieved him self and the relationships. This gives the social worker ideas of how he relates to others in and out of his/her immediate family.
psychosocial functioning factors part IV.
Social workers should be interested in any work or school attendence, how he feels about it. SW would also need to know about any history both family and ct regarding any compulsive and addictive behavior : anorexia, OCD, substance abuse.
Mental functioning: Any mental illness in the family or past dx of mental illness, any hospitlizations, oriented to time and place?
Cultural background. Social workers need to know the cultural, religious background of his client
Vineland adaptive behavior scale
designed to primarly test the adaptive functioning of mentally retarded children and adults, this test assesses a person's developmental level with regard to his/her ability to look after his /her own practical needs. Scores ore on four behavior domains. (communication, daily living skills, socialization and motor skills.
measures for the assessment of mental retardation
System of multicultrual pluralistic asessment (SOMPA)
-Vineland adaptive behavior scale
-AAMD adaptive behavior scale
System of Multicultral Pluralistic Asssesment (SOMPA)
integrates three components (medical, social system and pluralistic or sociocultural background). it also yeilds an ELP score (estimated learning potential) in conjunction with other tests. . It is used to estimate the extent to which children would benefit from programs designed for children with similar backgrounds.
AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale
appropriate for three and above this scale is used to access how individuals cope with the social and natural demands of his or her environment.
Measures for individuals with Physical handicaps
Tests deveoped as alternatives to the Stanford-Binet and Wechsler tests for assessing the general intellectual ability of individuals with physical handicaps. Hiskey-nebraska test of Learning Ability, the Haptic Intelligence scale for the blind, Peabody picture vocabulary test.
Cross cultral tests
Culture fair tests: test developd to over come the problems of disadvantage background, minority or subcultral using a non verbal format. Such tests in includes the Leiter International Performance scale, The IPAT culture Fair intelligence Test , the Progressive Matrices Test and the Goodenough Draw-a Man Test.
Peresonality tests
Used when a social worker suspsects a personality pathology or to find out how his personality is affecting his relationships with others.
Catorgorized as either structured or projective.
Structured (objective) Personality test.
Minnesota multiphasic Personality Inventory
-Edwards personal Preferene Schedule
-California psychological Inventory
=Sixteen personality Factor questionaire
Edwards Personal Preference Schedule
developed on the basis of Murray's personality theroy, tests correspond to the 15 needs: achievement, exhibition, autonomy, affilation, nuturance
Sixteen Personality Factor Questionaire
identifies 16 primary source traits such as resrved versus warm hearted, trusting versus suspicuous, practical verses imaginative) designed for indivudals age 16
California Psychological inventory
Designed for thirteen years old and older. Similar to MMPI but emphasis is on positive normal affects of personality rather than psychopathology.
Projective Personality tests
examinees are prepresented with unstructured, ambiguous stimuli and must be subjectively scored.
Free association
client says what ever comes to their mind first. bassed on the premise that associating with out censure allows the unconscous material to surface into consciousness.
dream Analysis.
Free association about the events in a dream to identify it's latent (unconscious content).
When a client becomes aware of their unconscious material they might start to feel anxiety and not want to deal. Resistance comes in the form of missed appointments or tardiness
The therapist neutrally allows the client to bestow feelings upon him that he had for other people in the past. Postive transference vs. Negative transference. The fomer underlies what appears to be a quick improvement in symptoms during the early stages of therapy. Negative transference is viewed as form of resistance.
therapist inappropriate emotional actions to a client.
restating the client's rearks and feeings in her behavior in a new way
point out discrepancies in his behavior.
Connecting current behavior to unconscious thoughts
Emotional release resulting from the recall of unconscious material.
basic form of defense mechanism. information is excluded from the consciousness by keeping them in the unconsciousness
occurs whena person retreats to an earlier stage of life and his behaviors are characteristic of that stage.

Ie. a grown man who acts like a baby when sick to be nutured
reaction formation
anxiety evoking event is avoided by expressing the opposite.
Transfer of an instinctual drive from it's orginal target to a less threatening target so that the drive can be more safel expressed
unacceptable impulses are diverted into a socially acceptable even admirable activity
a person admits the anxiety evoking thought, impulses but denies that it is personalyl relevant. Related to a child's magical power of thoughts and words
ascribing the thoughts and behaviors of others to one's self to better control one's affective responses to those thoughts and behaviors.
when a person interprets his or her behaviors in a way that makes them seem more rational , logical or socially acceptable.

ie. a person who fails a test will attribute his bad grade to the teacher's poor teaching skill rather than to his poor study habits.
when the individuals libidinal energy remains invested in an unresolved confliect
a person repeatedly engages in a behavior to undo the effects of a past behavior that he or she has found unacceptable. The behavior is the opposite of the unacceptable behavior.
teleological approach
Adler believed that behavior is purposeful and is driven by a person's future goal's rather than past events.
idiographic approach
involves an intensive investigation of an individual inorder to understand the his personality
nomotetic approach
studying a variety of people to derive general principles about personality and behavior.
What are key concepts to Adler's personality theory?
inferiority feelings, striving for superiority, style of life and social interest
adler's individual psychology
Adler disagreed with Freud in that personality is driven by unconscious instinctives and his lack of attention to social factors. Adler believed that personality is based on future goals rather than past events. His approach to personality is an idiographic approach which involves an intensive investigation of an individual in order to understand his personality rather than taking a nomothetic approach which entails studying a variety of people ot derive general principals about personality and behavior.
Adler's personality theory
inferiority feelings, superiority, style of life and social interest are key concepts in Adler's personality theory. According to him people experience inferiority feelings during child hood as a result of real or imagined biological, psychological or social weakness. And superiority is an inhernt tendency toward perfect completion. The style of life is the specific ways that a person chooses to compensate for inferiorty and achieve superiority.
Adler's healty and unhealthy style of life
is distingished by social interest. Healthy life style is marked by goals that reflect optimism and confidence and that entail contributing to the welfare of others. While a mistaken style of life is characterized by an absense of social interest. Goals that reflect selfcenteredness, competitiveness and striving for personal power.
Adler's View on maladaptive behavior
disorders represent a mistaken style of life which is characterized by self centeredness, competitiveness, need to strive for superiority and compensating for inferiority and lack of social interest
Adler's therapy goals and Techniques
adler believes in establishing a collaborative relationship with the client, help the client to identif and understand his style of life and its consequences and reorient the client's beliefs and goals so that they reflect a more adaptive lifestyle.
Techniques used by adlerian
Life investigation:
Study of dreams: Dreams are a source of information about a client's life style and progress in therapy.
Interpretation of resistance and transferences: resistence and transference according to adler is an is viewed as reflections of the client's style of life.
more of Adlerian techniques
Acting as if: role playing
Paradoxial intention: alderians make use of client's resistance by requesting them to pay closer attention to them or to exaggerate their undesirable thoughts and behaviors.
Giving Encouragment and advice: Adler believes that the therapist primary goal is to offer encouragement since clients are viewed as discouraged rather than being sick. Therapist should offer alternative courses of action from which the client can then choose.
Jung's analytical Psychotherapy
Jung belived that behavior is determined by both past events and future goals and aspirations. Personality is the consequence of both conscious and unconscious factors. Unconscious represents the individual's thoughts, ideas, feelings, sensory perceptions and memories and is oriented toward the external world and governed by the ego.
Jung's view of the unconscious
Unconscious is made personal unconscious which contains experiences that were once conscious but now are repressed or forgotten or were unconsciously percieved and the 2) cllective unconscious is latent memory traces that have been passed down from one genration to the next.
primordial images that cause peple to experience and understand certain phenomena in a universal way.
Jung also described personality as consiting of two attitudes and four basic psychological functions these are:
extraversion and introversion and four basic psychological functions, thinking, feeling, sensing and intuiting.
Jungian perspective of maladaptive behavior
symptoms are unconscious messages to the individuals that something is awry with him and that present him with a task that demads to be fulfilled
Whats is the primary goal of Jung's Analytical psychotherapy?
To rebridge the gap between the conscious and the personal and collective unconscious. This goal is achieved by interpretations that help the client become familiar with his or her inner world. Dream work is a key component of therapy because it is believed to be how collective unconscious is expressed.
Jungian and transference
Transference according to Jung is thought to be projections of the personal and collective unconscious and feels that transference plays a crucial role in therapy. However, he also considers countertransference to be a useful therapeutic tool that can provide the terapist with information about what is happening in the course of therapy
Neo Freudians
emphasize the role of interpersonal and other social influences rather than the importance of instictual forces in personality development
Neo freudian view of maladaptive behavior
Some of neo fruedians accept Freud's notion that anxiety is the basis of neurosis and that he origins of neurosis can be traced back to child hood. Horney believed that anxiety is the direct relationship of the child's interpersonal relationships. Basic anxiety
Ego analysts
Ego analsysts emphasise the ego on personality development (hence the name). They distinguish between two ego functions: The ego defensive functions and the ego autonomous functions. The ego defensive functions are similar to those described by freud and are involved in the resolution of conflict. The Ego autonomous functions however represent the "confliect fee ego sphere" and include such adaptive functions such as speech, learning, memory and pereption. They view personality as COUNTINUING THROUGH OUT THE LIFE SPAN RATHER THAN BEING FIXED IN CHILDHOOD
Ego's view on maladaptive behavior
pathology occurs when the ego loses it's autonomy with the id. The behavior is no longer under conscious control.
Ego analysts therapy goals and techniques.
Follow early classical psychoanalysis but emphasizes more on the present than on the past.
Object relations
Object relations and Freud share similar approaches in that they both examine the relationship of a young child with objects or significant others
Object relations personality Theory.
object relations approach focuses on the processes y which an infant assumes its own physical and psychological. For mahler, development entails the following phases. In the first month of life , the infant is an state of normal autism and is essentially oblivious to the external environment. The symbiotic phase if from the second to the eight month and is fused with its mother and does not differentiate betwee "I" and "not-I"
Development of separation individuation phase is where the development of object relationsihps occurs.
Object relations view of maladaptive behaviors
Different disorders are the result of abnormailites in early object relations. From Mahlers perspective, different disorders are associated with disturbances and fixation at different stages of development
Pair maladaptive behaviors with an imcompatible behavior to eliminate the former.
Humanistic existential Theory and Models
1. To understand a person, one must undertand his or her subjective experience. 2. Emphasis on the uniqueness and "wholeness" of the individual. 3. focus on current behaviors. 4. individiual's inherent potential for self determination and self actualization. 5. therapy is authentic, collaborative, and egalitarian relationship between the client and therapist
Therapy models included in Humanistic and existential Theory models
Person-centered therapy, Gestalt THerapy, Transactional analysis, and reality therapy
Person CEnter Therapy
Carl Rogers. Every one has an innate self actualization tendency. This is the major source of motivation that guides them toward positive healthy growth.
Person Centered and Personality theory
Central concept: notion of self. To grow toward self actualization, the self must remain unified, organized and whole.
Person centered therapy and Maladaptive behavior
self becomes disorganized when there is an incongruence betwen self and experience. Incongruence occurs when the client encouters conditions of worth. Incongruence produces unpleasant visceral sensations that are expereinced as Anxiety. Seves as an signal that the unified self is being threatented. Anxiety may be alleviated through devense maneuvers such as perpetual distortion an denial.
Therapy goals
Primary goal: to help the client achieve congruence between eslf and experience. THis leads her to become a more fully functioning self actualing person.
therapy techniques and Person centered
unconditional postive regard: The therapist accepts the client for who they are. Does not pass judgement, must genuninely care about the client and affirm the client's self worth. Empathy: Therapist must convey that he undersands the world as the client sees it. Genuineness. Must be genunine and congruent in his word and behaviors
Person centered
Is non directive: does not interpret, manipulate, adivce or diagnostic lables. The client is the expert of his or her own inner processes and encourages clients to arrie at their own insights and decisions.
gestalt Therapy
Based on the premise that people are capable of assuming personal responsibility for their thoughts, feelings and actions and living as an integrated whole. Related to concepts drawn from Gestalt therapy: people tend to seek closure. 2. a Person's gestalts reflect his or he current needs. 3. Behavior represents a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts. 4. Behavior can only be understood in its context. 5. A person expereinces the world in accord with the principal of figure ground.
Gestalt therapy and personality theory
Personality consists of the self and the self image. SElf is what promotes creativity in the individual to move him toward self actualization or an integrated whole. The self image hinders growth and self actualization by imposing external standards. Person's interaction with the environment early in life determines which personality trait will dominate.
Gestalt and view of Maladaptive behavior
gestalt therapy considers maladaptive behavior as a Growth disorder. This is when the person abandons the development of self for the self image. It also stems from messed up boundaries between the self and the environment. (disturbance) that interferes with the person's ability to satisfy his or her own needs and thus reach homeostasis. There are four boundary disturbance.
Four boundary disturbances as outlined in Gestalt therapy
The absence of boundaries between self and environment
Therapy goals of Gestalt therapy
help a client achieve integration of the various aspects of the self in order to become a unified whole.
Gestalt therapy techniques
like prson center, gestalt also uses a noninterpretaive technique that focuses on the present awareness that doesn't focus on cognitive interpretation. They regard transference as "transference fantasy" and helf the clients to recognize the difference between reality
One of the primary factors in gestalt
foster awareness or a full understanding of one's thoughts feelings and actions. Therapists do this by directed awareness: Asking simple direct questions to keep the client in the here and now. NO questions: clients are discouraged to ask questions especially why questions because it masks ture feelings and fosters intellectualization.
Using I langanguage: Clients are encouraged to begin sentences with "I" in order to help them assume responsibility for their actions. Assuming responsibility: Clients are asked to tack on the phrase: ANd I take responsibility for it. Empty chair technique. And dream work
Family Therapy
built on general system theory which proposes that family is an entity that can be understood through the mutual interaction of it's components. It is an open system in which it takes in input and discharges output into the community or the environment. This system continues to strive for homeostasis or equilibrium.
another model of the family therapy theory and is based on the concept of feed back loops either negative or postive feed back. Postive feedback encourages deviation or change which can disrupt the system and result in breakdown or runaways. The negative feed back loops reduce deviation and help a system maintain it's status quo. IN therapy, positive feed back promotes appropriate change in a dysfunctional family system
Application of family therapy
Family therapy is preferred over individual therapy when the later has not been effective, when a change in the client will affect the whole system, when there is a family conflict, when the family is maing one member the scape gaot for shared problems or when there is a family related crisis. It is not appropriate however when the family members are unavailable or not willing to participate.
communication interaction therapy assumption
1. People are always communicating even when they are doing nothing. 2. Communication has a report and command function the report function is the content (informational) aspect of communication and the command function is the nonverbal that portrays the relaships between the communicator. Problems arise when these two are not consistent. 3. Communication patterns are either symettrical or complementary. Symmetrical reflects equality between communicators and may foster competiveness. 4. Principal of equifinity: the result will be the same no matter where the change occurs in the system
Coomunication interaction Family therapy view of maladaptive behavior
Circular model therapy: Symptom is a cause and effect of dysfunctional communicational pattern. it includes blaming, using incomplete statements, mindreading, over generalizing. Making statement s that imply the events are unalterable
Communication /interaction family therapy: Therapy Goals
to alter the interactional patterns that maintain the present symtoms
Therapy techniques for Communication /interaction Family therapy
direct techniques: pointing out to family members problematic interaction patterns as they occur. Teaching family members the rules of clear communicatio nand interpreting interactional patterns. Indirect techniques: include paradoxial strategies in which the faily members have to engage in the dysfunctional behavir or relabeling.
Possseing the same or similar charcteristics
Hospital social Work
Social Work Services provided in a hopsital or other health care facility including, preventative, rehabilitative and follow up activities, helping patients with social and economic aspects of their care, patient and family counseling, discharge palnning , and proisions of information.
Humanistic Psychoterapies.
Share a phenomenological perspective and view of the individual as unique. A herean d now perspective and an emphasis on individual awareness and responsibility and a believe that people have an innate capacity for positive growth and self actualization.
AB Design
A single subject research design that includes a single baseline (A) phase and a single treatment (b) phase. A short coming of this design is that it does not aequately control history which can threaten a study's internal validity
Alpha (Level of signfcance)
The probablilty of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true (ie the probability o maiking a type one error. The value of alpha is set by the experimenter prior to collecting or analyzing the data. In psychological research alpha is commonly set at either .01 or .05
Alternative hypothesis
The statistical hypothesis that states that there is a relationsip between the IV and the DV . The alternative hypothesis can either be directional or non directional.
Analogue studies
Studies conducted in a facsimile of reality. that is studies conducted in laboratory or other artificial setting. A problem with analougue studies sis that their results may have limited generalizability
Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA):
An extension of the Anova used to increase the efficiency of the analysis by statistically removing variablity in the DV that is due to an extraneous variable.
Arithmetic Mean
The measure of central tendency that is the arithmietic average of a set of scores. THe mean can be used when scores are measured on an interval or ratio scale.
Attrition (mortality)
Extraneous variable that threatens a study's interal validity during the course of the study differ in some relevant way from subjects who drop out of another group. When attrition occurs, it is not possible to tell if differences between group at the end of a study are due to the effects of the IV or to biases introduced by attrition.
Behavioral sampling :
A method of samping behavior in observational studies that usually entails some type of time and or event samping: (recording whether or not a behavior has occured during certain pretermined time intervals)
Bbetween groups designs.
Studies in which the effects of the different levels of one or more IVs are compared by administering each level or combination of levels to different group of subjects
a method used to control the impact of extraneous variable when an investigator wants to statistically analyze its effects on the DV. Incolves blocking (grouping subjects with regard to their status on the aztraneous variable and then randomly assigning subjects in each bloc kto one of the treatment groups.
Carry over effects
A threat to a studies external validitiy that occurs in studies utilizing a repeated measure (within in subject) design when the effects of one levl of an IV affect how subjects respond to another level. Can be controlled by using a counter balanced design. Also known as practice effects, order effects and multiple treatment interference.
Case studies
a general term used to descrbe an indepth investigation of a single indivdiaul, family, organization. Although case studies are sually classified as descriptive research, the can be conducted as experimental studies. That is a in a single subject research. A short coming of case studies is that their results m ight not be generalizable to other cases
Central limit theorem
The tehorem derived from probability theory that predicts that the samping distribution of means will approach a normal shape as the sample size increases, regardless of the shape of the population distribution of scores. )also derived from probability theory are the predictions that the mean of sampnig distribution of means equals the population mean and its standard deviation equals the population standard deviation divided by the square root of N>.
Cohort effects
the effects of being part of a group that was born at a particular time and as a result was more exposed to unique educational, cultrual, and other experiences. Cohort effects can confound the results of a cros-sectional study since any observed differences between age groups might be due to these effects rather than to differences in age only.
Correlation coefficient
a numerical index of the relationship (degree of association) between two or more variables. The magnitude of the coeffiecient indicates the strength of the relationship; its sign indicates that direction (positive or negative.)
Acces provision
Actions taken by an agency to ensure that its services are available to the target population. examples include educating the public about the service, establishing convenient referral procedures and having ombudsman services to deal with obstacles to getting the service
THe duty of a profession to notify the public about its functions and methods and to provide assurance to its consumers that members of the profession meet certain standards of competence. 20 the conditions of being answerable to the community to one's consumers or to supervisory groups
Accrual Acounting
Accounting method in which every expense is regarded as Debt even if actual funds have not been spent, and every payment owed is viewed as an assess, even if pay ment hasn't been recieved
ORganized behavior that seeks to achieve social or political objectives
Administration in social work
Includes activites and skills geared toward making staff and processes in an organization operate in a way that achieves its desired goals. It is typically humanistic in nature. Fucntions include planning, organizing, developing resources, budgeting, program evaluation, staff development, interorganizational relations, and management
Advisory Board
Comprised of individuals who have particular expertise, their role is to provide information, expert opnion and recommendation to an organization about how its goals can be achieved. THe members may be hired, elected or drafted as volunteers and sometimes include the agency's board of directors.
In social welfare administration, activites aimed at informing the public in order to persuade people that change is necessary; administratiors use advocacy to get porfessional support for their view of how the community should develop. The goal is to get support (including resources from finacial and or decision making powers
Associated with community organizing. A person or a group who tried to promote change in a social institution. This can be done in many different ways (eg votor registration, publicity but the goal is alays institutional change.
Occurs when the values, mores, norms, and codes of conduct for a community society or other group have been either eliminated or weakend. In this condition, individuals are often alientated and apathetic , and lose sight of their goals. Anomie is often found in rapidly changing communities or societes or in groups that expereince extreme stress.
The designation of funds to a specific group, agency or program. These funds are typically allocated by a governmental agency to enable the recipient to meet a specific goal.
Authoritarian Management
A managemnet style in which organization leaders have a fairly non -democratic philosophy of leadership. THe manager typically does not involve employees in decision making and submission to authority is expected .
Autonomous practice
those who practice professionaly without being under the auspices of an agency or other formal organization. Such professionals usually determine their own procedures and policies according to the goals and objectives of their practice. However they are expected to to follow the ethical and procedural guidelines established by their profession.
Barclay reprot
Report resulting from a 1980 british study on the need for and deliveryof social services and the role of social workers in delivering social services. THe report recommneded more social wokrers involvement in the counseling, social planning, promoting community decision networks, negotiation and social advocacy.
Associated with community organizing and planning. A process of negotiation/compromise that takes place between disputing parties. THe give and take process ideally results in an even exchange between groups
Basic Needs
Items considered by socal planners to be necessary for maintaining persoal well being: include adequate food, shelter clothing , heating fuel, clean water and security from bodily harm
zero based budgeting
budgeting based on zero mones at the start of the budget year organizations must justify each dollar requested fro the year, designed to eliminate unncessary budget allocation
involves the voluntary faking of physical or psychological symptoms in order to gain some reward or avoid responsibilities
Motivating staff and raising moral
participative leadership. staff should be a part of the assessment of the conflict situation and advise ways to resolve it.
Classical conditioning
occurs when an unconditioned stimulus is paired with a conditioned stimulus until the CS comes to elicit the same response (conditioned response) that is naturally elcited by the US
application of operant conditioning. Involves reinforcing successive approximations of a behavior until the behavior is learned
Operant conditioning
response is earned or stregnthened as a result of reinforcement
negative reinforcement
application of operant conditioning. It involves removing an aversive stimulus to encrease the probablitity or strengh of a behavior
Variable interval schedule
variable interval schedule.: the time interval between the delivery of reinocers varies in unpredictable ways. (surprise test)
fixed ratio schedule
reinforcer is delivered each time the subject makes a specific number of responses (piece work)
variable ratio schedule
reinforcement occurs after a variable number of responses. A gambler recieveds reinforcement (money) after a variable number of responses.
fixed interval schedule
the subject is reinforced after a fixed period of time regardess of the number or responses made. (weekly pay checks)
Primary prevention programs
programs focus on preventin the development of mental disorders: ex. prenatal care ofr women in low ses groups and public education programs about dru and alcohol use.
secondary prevention programs
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tertiary prevention programs
designed to eliminate or reduce the residual disablities that exist after the onset of the disorder (alcholism and drug abuse) AA and synon.
crisis intervention
goal: to reach an individual in the early stages of a crisis in order to help him or her deal with the crisis in an effective manner. `
object permanence or object concept
key accomplishment of piaget's sensorimotor stage
Beck's hopelessnes scale
used to measure depression and assessing suicide ris. It is based on the assumption that hopelessness about the future is a good predictor of suicidal ideation and attempts.
present at birth. Operates on the basis of pleasure principal because it seeks immediate gratification of its needs in order to avoid tension.
develops at around six months of age. Operates according to the reality principal. It defers gratification of the id's insticnts until an appropriate object is available in reality.
dynamic principle
refers to the emphasis in psychoanalytic theory on understanding the individual in terms of the dynamic interactions (conflicts) that occur between the id, ego and superego.
genetic principle
psychoanalytic emphasis on the importance of childhood experience
covert sensitization
behavioral technique in whcih the aversive counterconditioning is done in the imagination.
in vivo flooding
more effective for agoraphobias.
chosing a compromise that keeps the groups progressing toward a common goal
purposely bringing up differences in opinons between groups in order to get the groups to actively discuss and wor toward resolving their differences
trying to get everyone to work together toward a goal. Reduce conflict by including the expected opponets in your group.
highlighting the differences between the groups in order to increase the conflict between them and to motivate them to make organizational improvements
Structural family therapy
dysfunction as resulting from an inflexible family structure that prohibits the family from adapting to situational and maturational changes
Communications/ interpretation (experiential family therapy)
purpose of symptoms is to maintain homeostasis in family. Pathological failies are stuck in dysfunctionaly comunication patterns. Change is a threat the to the family system. Goal of therapy is to alter the interactional patterns that maintain the presenting sympton
Basic principals of Communications family therapy
all communication has a report level and a command level (see other slide). relationships are either complementary or symmetrical. Principal of equifiniality and circular model of causality.
report level
the stated content of the message
command level
metacommunication or a covert message relative to how the commmunication is to be taken
symmetrical relationships
eglatarian relationships (equal). roles are mirror imagines. Competiveness
Complementary relationships
relationships that involve a fit between different roles. Reflect inequality and maximize differnces in communicators
principle of equifinity
the end result will be the same no matter where in the system the change occurs
circular model of causality.
behaviors of a different subsystem of a system reciprocally impact eachother
dysfunctional communication
blaming and criticizing,mind reading, making incomplete statement, making statements tat imply that events are unalterable. denying. over generalizing, disqualifying.
dysthmic disorder
must be present for more days than not over a period of at least two years . Chronic less severe
major depressive disorder
depressed mood for most of the day every day for a period of at least two weeks. Can be distinguished from from normal functioning.
Buckley amendment
grants students over the age of 18 the rigth to inspect their student's records
Demand characteristics
cues in the situation that inform a subject how he is expected to perform in the course of the study and therefore affect his performance.
Hawthorne effect
occurs when subjects behave differently that nthey normally would bcause they are aware they are being observed
evaluation apprehensive
desire of subjects to avoid negative evaluations
experimenters expectancy
tendency of experimenters to treat subjects in a group differently.

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