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lecture 13


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Naturally Aquired Active Immunity
After an injecton, the end result is memory T and B cells
Naturally Aquired Passive Immunity
Ab passes from Mother to Fetus and after birth, it gets to the baby via breast milk.
Artificially Aquired Active Immunity
Ag introduced by a VACCINE, body produces Ab as a specialized lymphocyte. SNAKE BIT VENOM
Artificially Aquired Passive Immunity
Preformed antibodies in immune serum are introduced via injection
Gamma Globulin Shot
Blood Protein that contains the most antibodies., treatment in disorders with ab dificiencies, transfers passive immunity
Purpose of Vaccine in an individual
to educate the adaptive immune system
Purpose of Vaccine in a population
if u vaccinate a large percentage of a population, it can't spread like wildfire
HERD immunity
80% of a population will protect it from the disease because there are not enough susceptible individuals to spread infection
live organism w/ a less virulent version, like TB causing bacteria
Attentuated Bacteria
weakened pathogen, less virulent virus, capable of stimulating immune response, Sabin polio virus, mmr, chix pox
Attentuated Virus vaccine
Killing organism, then SHOWING THE ORGANISM, INFLUENZA, Rabies, Salk Polio
Inactivated Whole Agent vaccine
Tteanus, an activated toxin
TOXOID vaccine
A protein, an antigen, Hep B Vaccine, Protein found on it
Protein subunit vaccine
Uses polysacharide from capsule(AG) capable of a strong Ag from Ag from another to increase immune response against poor ag
Polysacharide Vaccine type
Binds poor ag onto carrier protein
Conjugated Vaccine
DNA will encode Ag sequence expressed for some time period after the muscle exposed
Experimental DNA types
Combo Vaccine for 3 bacterial diseases
DTaP diptheria, tetanus, and pertussis
Combo Vaccine for 3 viral diseases
Ab titer
measures ab in serum
rising titer
indicates an ongoing infection
development of specific abs to microorganisms in the serum due to an ongoing infection or immunization
Involved SOLUABLE Ag, IgM OR IgG class ab's, detects AG in sample, uses known Abs specific to that AG
Precipitation reaction
INSOLUABLE Ag, uses large insoluable AH like Fungi or Bacteria to detect AB
Direct agglutination
Soluable Ag can be coupled w/ beads to detect specific pathogens and Ab's, latex beads
Indirect agglutination
Used to detect MONO, someviruses can clump RBC's
Direct Florescent AB staining
used to id specific microorganisms,
Indirect Florescant tests is used to demonstrate what? Uses a known AG bound to a slide, add sera, detects sera with a 2nd ab that recognizes a constant FC region on human Ab combined w/ FITC
Presence of AB IN SERUM, tests for HIV
Florescent activated cell sorter, used to id cells in a mixed sample, HIV tests, cd4+ T cells
Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay
What method would YOU use to detect specifis Ab's in serum?
Indirect ELISA-start w. known Ag, ends with ag-ab-ab complex, u see if finding took place with the second anti-human Ab, which produces a color change. (in a positive reaction, their is a color change)

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