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psy 209


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The Law of Bell and Magendie states that in the spinal cord, dorsal fibers are ______ and ventral are _______.
Dorsal fibers- sensory Ventral fibers- motor
In Damasio\'s gambling card game, what did people with frontal lobe damage do?
Frontal lobe damage showed inability to anticipate outcomes
After the second messenger binds to membrane channel, what happens? (3)
Action causes protein molecules in cell to be incorporated into membrane Forms new ion channels Instructs cell\'s DNA to initiate production of new protein
What combination of systems does the brain have?
The brain appears to have a combination of serial and parallel systems
What is the absolute refractory period?
Action potentials can\'t be produced
In which system is there an increase in heart rate and inhibition in digestion?
Sympathetic system
What is the purpose of the Golgi apparatus?
Wraps proteins and ships them in cell to proper location
Are calcium and potassium ions involved in producing resting potential?
Calcium ions are not involved in producing a resting potential
What is the importance of ionotropic receptors?
Binding site for neurotransmitter and pore/channel. No G protein
Where are precursor chemicals from?
absorbed from blood
What is it when two impulses are closer together on the membrane?
Spatial Summation
Afferent to efferent as ___ is to ____
as (IN) is to (OUT)
Who are the two researchers that recorded from an axon of a squid?
Hodgkin and Huxley
What was Penfield credited for doing in the brain?
Mapping the human cortex
What are the types of neurotransmitters?
gases small molecules peptide
What do lysosomes do?
Get rid of cell waste
What is dualism? And what structure was thought to influence body?
Dualism- body and mind control behavior Pineal body influences body by directing fluids from ventricles to muscles
What does the neocortex consist of?
six layers of gray matter on top of layer of white matter
What are ventricles?
large cavities in brain with CSF
MRI study of Christopher Reeve\'s revealed that larger areas were activated in his brain when asked to perform _____ movement compared to _____
hand or tongue movement compared to normal control
Superior colliculus-_______ Inferior colliculus-_______
superior- visual inferior- auditory
What does the basal ganglia consist of?
Caudate nucleus and putamen
Sodium Potassium pump exchanges _______ intracellular ___ ions for ___ extracellular ___ ions.
3 intracellular Na+ ions for 2 extracellular K+ ions
What is salutatory conduction?
Action potentials jumping from one node to the next
Which is bigger: hippocampus or amygdala?
Where are neurotransmitters produced?
Cell body & Presynaptic terminal
Where are calcium channels found?
Presynaptic membrane
What do activated metabotropic receptors do?
Activated receptors indirectly produce changes in nearby ion channels or in cell\'s metabolic activity thru series of steps
What is hyperpolarization?
change in resting potential from -70mV to -73 mV
How many directions do action potentials travel in an axon? Why?
Action potential goes only in one direction in an axon because refractory periods force impulse to go in one direction
A brief change in polarity of a membrane is called ______.
Action potential
What is the Radiator Theory?
The brain cools by blood flow
What type of cells process sensory information and send motor information?
How are transgenic animals produced?
Adding a gene to the genome
What receives exhibitory and inhibitory input in cells?
What can be a result of fixed behavior and adaptive behavior in a crossbill bird, who has a beak designed to eat pinecones?
Fixed behavior- trim the beak, behavior disappears Adaptive behavior- learn to grab a stone to break seed
Why do fruit eating primates have a larger brain?
They forage more than vegetation eaters
What\'s the hypothesis on homo floresiensis and body and brain and EQ?
Hypothesized that dwarfing of brain and body due to limited resources on island of Flores. Hypothesized EQ not consistent with tool use. Hypothesized they lived contemparously with other hominids, uncluding homo sapiens.
What are glial cells?
Support neurons
How many pairs of chromosomes are in the human cell?
23 pairs
What are the functions of the cell membrane? (2)
- control amount of water in cell - regulate concentration of salts on both sides of membrane
What does the second messenger bind to and what does it affect?
Binds to membrane channel causing change in structure and altering ion flow.
What are the functions of Acetylcholine? (4)
- role in EEG -memory -movement of skeletal muscles - control internal organs
Type I
excitatory, round synaptic vesicles
What are synaptic vesicles?
Contain neurotransmitters
Where are neurotransmitters synthesized?
In terminal or soma
By what are neurotransmitters secreted into blood?
What are the (4) different ways neurotransmitters can be inactivated?
-Diffusion -Reuptake into presynaptic terminal -Taken by neighboring cells - Enzyme degradation
Voltage gated calcium ion channels that function in neurotransmission are primarily found ______.
on the presynaptic membrane
Can neurotransmitters be removed from the synaptic cleft by diffusion, uptake by surrounding blood vessels, and enzymatic degradation?
Yes- diffusion, enzymatic degradation No- uptake by surrounding blood vessels
Vesicles store _____
Norepinephrine is the neurotransmitter found in (parasympathetic/sympathetic) (pre-/post) ganglionic cells
norepinephrine- sympathetic postganglionic cells
In humans, ability of developing brain to compensate from injury is better if injury occurs at which time period? 1 month 3 month last trimester 1 year old
1 year old
What is preformation?
embryo is a miniature adult
What\'s the stages of brain development in order? (check book to make sure)
neurogenesis cell migration cell differentiation cell maturation
What stage begins around 6 weeks, and complete by 20 weeks after conception?
When does neural migration occur and when is it largely complete?
occurs in development from about 8 weeks and is largely complete by 29 weeks of gestation (development)
What are the periods of neural migration, neural maturation, cell differentiation?
Neural migration/cell differentiation- begins at about 8 weeks and complete by about 29 weeks Neural maturation- starts at about 20 weeks and continues til well after birth
In sequence of brain development, what stage occurs last and is not complete until adulthood?
What is mylenation? And, when is it complete?
Mylenation- mylenation of cortex continues in young adults; occurs later in life frontal lobe continues up to 18+ year Not complete until adulthood
Cell differentiation occurs after what stages?
How do cells migrate to appropriate location?
Radial glial cells
What are growth cones? What do they respond to?
CAM- & tropic molecules
What is apoptosis?
cell genetically programmed to die
What is Neural Darwinism?
Synaptic pruning Competition for sites/connections Lack/limited availability of resources
Piaget\'s stages:
sensorimotor, pre-operational/symbolic, concrete operational, formal operational
What brain area is involved for: Non matching to sample task, Displacement task, Concurrent discrimination
Non-matching to sample task- temporal lobes Displacement task- temporal lobes/basal ganglia Concurrent discrimination- basal ganglia
Where do progenitor cells come from?
stem cells
What lines the ventricular zone of an adult brain?
neural stem cells
What\'s long-term potential/enhancement?
change in excitatory postsynaptic potential that lasts for hours to days
What is the hierachial effect? Activational? Sensitization?
Hiearachial effect- (p 68) when top structure communicates to second structure, second to others, etc....
What is the organizational hypothesis?
actions of hormones during development alter tissue differentiation
Male rats, when castrated on their first day of life, do not show male sex behavior during adulthood even when given testosterone injections. (castration- take testes out, when testosterone gets to brain surge of estrogen is what turns it into male brain)
organizational effect
What neurotransmitters are released from sympathetic preganglionic and sympathetic postganglionic cells?
sympathetic: preganglionic- acetylcholine Postganglionic- norepinephrine
Ions are ______ charged molecules located _____ the axon.
negatively .... inside
An axon is polarized when:
the inside of the axon is electrically negative with respect to the outside
During depolarization, _____ molecules rush into the axon; during repolarization, _____ molecules rush out of the axon.
sodium; potassium
Synaptic trasnmission is the process by which a single neuron _____
relays messages to other neurons.
In the process of communication between neurons, neurotransmitter molecules are released into the gap between neurons by the:
synaptic vesicles
The left hemisphere of a split brain patient receives visual input only from the _(left/right)___ visual field of (right eye/left eye/both)
right; both right and left eyes
Right handed split brain patients are able to: a. name unseen objects placed in their right hands but not objects placed in their left hands b. name unseen objects placed in their left hands but not objects placed in their right hands c. name unseen
a. name unseen objects placed in their right hands but not objects placed in their left hands
(Right/left) hemisphere is especially effective at processing language
Left hemisphere- effective at processing language
Because left hemisphere is more effective at processing language, split brain patients are able to: a. repeat words more quickly when they are whispered into their left rather than their right ear b. name an inseen object more rapidly when placed in lef
c. read words more easily when they are flashed briefly in their right rather than their left visual fireld
Normal people who have been blindfolded can name an object placed in their left hand because information about the object is transferred across the corpus callosum to the (right/left) hemisphere of the brain.
left hemisphere
The (right/left) hemisphere of the brain excels at spatial tasks.
right hemisphere excels at spatial tasks
Right handed split brain patient can effectively assemble a puzzle with the ________ hand because the _____ hemisphere of the brain excels at spatial tasks.
left; right
What are the functions of the cerebellum?
coordinate balance and movement
The hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus are all part of the:
limbic system
The limbic system structure that influences agression and fear is the:
The part of the cerebral cortex that controls voluntary muscle movements is the:
motor cortex
If someone has difficulty understanding spoken language, he or she may have damage to the:
Wernicke\'s area
In humans and monkeys, the premotor cortex is involved in:
planning movements
Mirror neurons that are found in the premotor cortex of monkeys:
fire excitedly when the monkey watches a movement just as they did when the monkey performed the same movement
In humans, mirror neurons might enable:
observational learning
The area in the human brain that corresponds to the F5 area in the monkey\'s brain is:
Broca\'s area
Evolutionary psychologists believe mirror nuerons may have playd an important role in:
sensory adaptation

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