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Science - Test 2


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The study of living things
What is osmosis
The continuous movement of water from a solution of higher water content through a semipermeable memmbrane into a solution of lower water content
This is the green pigment of plants, where is it found
chlorophyll, in the chloroplasts
the four basic leaf shapes are
broad, flat leaves
long, narrow leaves
needlelike leaves
scaly leaves
Are almost 3/4 of all the flowering plant species monocot or dicots
the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma
having two cotoledons
having one cotyledon
scattering or distributing of seeds after they are mature is called
What are cotyledons
Cotyledens are sturctures in a seed that are designed for food absorptiona nd storage.
seed growth stages are
first stage - swelling
second stage - growth of radicle
Final stage - the emergence of the plumule above the surface of the ground and the growth of the radicle into a root system.
Scientists who study plants
What happens during photosynthesis
Water moves up the stem to the leaves. Carbon dioxide enters through the stomata. Chlorophyll absorbs sunlight. The energy of the sun splits water into hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen combines with carbon dioxide to produce glucose. Oxygen passes out through the stomata.
What is photosythesis
The food-manufacturing process of plants.
Plant reproduction without flowers, seeds, or fruits
Vegetative reproduction
Any plant wiht a long, thin stem that grows along the gound or has tendrils that twine around a wall or other support
Vines, they can be either woody or herbaceous
Food made during photsynthesis is borken down in a reverse process know as
Primary growth of a root is
Growth in length
Secondary growth of a root is
Growth in diameter
What are stomata
Tiny pores located on the underside of the leaf. Carbon dioxide enters the leaf from the air that passes through the stomata. Excess oxygen is released though the stomata into the air.
the top fo the vase
how much area of the earth do grasses cover
the top of the stamen
What is cambium
A layer of cells between the transport tubes of a woody dicot
the curved middle of the pistil
Nonflowering green plants are called
The branch of biology that specializes in plants
What do stems do for a plant
Stems support the leaves and lflowers of a plant. The stem is also used for transporting substances and for storing food
family of plants that have square, stout stems and often have a pleasant odor
mint family
A carbohydrate found in the cell wall of plants cells
Plants that live several years and develop a large amount wood in their stems
woody plants
What are the tiny chemical factories inside a leaf's cell that absorbs sunlight
The vased shape stucture in the center of the flower
Non-wood plants are referred to as
herbaceous plants
Root pressure
The upward force that results as water enters the roots by osmosis
The phloem does what
Carries sugars from the leaves back to the stem and roots to be stored
leaves having no petioles
The second largest plant family is the
Pea family
Legumes help restore what to the soil
Explain the root cap
The outer cone-shaped tip of the root made up of serveral layers of dead cells, it protects the new growth cells as they push through the soil to lengthen the root
a creeping stem that gorws above the ground
What are the two types of vascular tissue in a plant's transport system
xylem and Phloem
The xylem does what
Carries water and nutrients from the root hairs upward through the root and stem to the leaves
What does the root system do for a plant
The root system anchors the plant to the soil, absorbs water and minerals for growth and stores food.
What type of root system does a dicot have
A taproot system - the primary root grows straight down and remains larger than the secondary rootlets
Explain semipermeable membrane
A membrane that will allow some molecules to pass through, but not others.
This surrounds the root's transport system and is the inner portion of the root
What are root hairs
Tiny hairs that develop from the sides of the root and force their way between soil particles to absorb water and dissoved minerals.
leaflike structures that surrond the petals of a flower
the large rounded part at the bottom of the pistil that holds the ovules
Capillary action
The tendency of water molecules to move up through the xylem tissue in response to surface tension
The largest family of flowering plants
the uniting of a pollen grain with an egg cell resulting in the formation of a seed
The tip of the root is called
the root cap
Evaporation of water from the leaves
Flowering plants
vase-shaped structure in the center of the flower
Seed pods, members of the pea family
The rise of water through the xylem is aided by
Root pressure and capillary action
What type of root system does a monocot have
Fibrous root system - the primary root remains small, and many slender secondary rootlets grow from it in all directions
the early growth of a seed
the stem of the stamen
surround the pistil

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