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Final Exam Review 2


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The science of the classification of organisms.
Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection (also known as Descent With Modifications).
Differntial succes in reproduction by different phenotypes resulting form interactions with the environment.

Developed by Charles Darwin.

4 main postulates:

1. Organisms produce a surplus of offspring.

2. There is inheritable variation in the offspring.

3. Organisms compete for limited resources.

4. Organisms with inherited characters most adapted to their particular environment are more likely to leave more offspring (Survival of the fittest).
What are the levels of human variations?
There are three levels of human variations, ranging from differences among family members to differences among race.

1. Difference of family members
2. Differences among members of the same race.
3. Differences among races
What is the impact of selective breeding on human civilization?
Selective breeding was responsible for the development of domesticated plants and animals.
What is Antibiotic Resistance?
Bacteria develop this whent they are exposed to anitbiotics for a long period of time.
How do bacteria develop antibiotic resistance?
Through random mutation.
How many species are there?
1.5 million species are identified and an estimated 30 million exist.
What is a race or breed?
A race or breed is a group of individuals that share many traits through selective breeding.
What is the intent of Darwin's Theory?
Darwin's Theory was conducted and constructed to explain biological changes.
Extinction means that the species is gone
Extant means still in effect.
Why are there so many breeds of dog?
There are over 300 breeds of dongs, and they were developed through selective breeding.
Why are there different races?
Different races are in part the reflections of physiological adaptations to different environments.
How does selective breeding work?
By mating individuals with the same trait.
How does natural selection drive biological change?
Adaptation through natural selection forms the basis of biological change.
What is Darwin's contribution?
Darwin developed the most important theory in biology to explain change and diversity in the biological world.
What causes a species to become extinct?
Environmental Changes.
How long has earth existed?
4.6 Billion years.
When do you dream?
REM sleep
What is the bottleneck effect?
When there is so much imbreeding that the offspring have no differences.
How often does extinction occur?
Small-scale extinciton occurs constantly, and major extinction occurs on regular intervals.
How does a trait become perpetuated?
By it's ability to promote reproductive success.
What is a species?
All of the organisms that are potentially capable of interbreeding under normal circumstances and conditions.

~ the fundamental unit in classifying biological organisms ~
How does a new species form?
From existing species through mutation and natural selection.
What is speciation?
A process in which two populations achieve reproductive isolation.
Classification System
Kingdom - Continent
Phylum - Country
Class - State
Order - County
Family - City
Genus - Street
Species - House Number

King (Kingdom)
Philip (Phylum)
Came (Class)
Over (Order)
From (Family)
Germany (Genus)
Saturday (Species)
Interbreeding Population
Divergence and proliferation of a species.
What is Allopatric Speciation?
The formation of a new species as a result of an ancestral population's becomming isolated by a geographical barrier.

~ Where geographical isolation prevents two populations from interbreeding ~

~ Most common mechansim by which a new species arises ~
Allopatric Speciation
Some type of physical barrier that arises and prevents gene flow between populations of species.
Two Kinds of Reproductive Barriers:
How many Kingdoms are there?
How are living organisms classified?
In a scheme with species being the most basic classification.

~ Humans: Homo Sapiens ~
How does a living organism aquire a new trait?
Through selective forces acting on random mutations.
Reproductive Definition of a Species:
All members of the same species have the ability to reproduce with each other.
One kind of organism. "Like Organisms"
What is the relation among living organisms?
There is a unity among all living organisms at the biochemical and genetic levels, indicating their relatedness.
Do insects dominate the living world?
Insects dominate the living world by their diversity.

. 9 out of 10 animal species are insects
How does a species come into bieng?
Individual varitations and reproductive isolation give rise to a new species.
How do individual variations promote natural selection?
They provide the substrate for natural selection.
What causes reproductive isolation?
It is caused by geographiccal seperation of two populations of the same species.
An infectious disease of the red blood cells caused by plasmodium.
What causes Malaria?
How does the sickle cell trait protect against Malaria?
The sickle cell trait protects against Malaria by making the infected red blood cells more susceptible to lysis.
How does natural selection propogate the sickle cell trait?
Individuals carrying the sickle cell trait are resistant to Malaria and pass on the trait to the next generation.
What do antioxidants do?
They fight against free radicals.
What is a free radical?
A molecule that includes an oxygen atom that lacks a full complement of electrons in its outer shell. As a result it is extremely reactive. It can disrupt or destroy the molecules in the process.
What are some sources of antioxidants?
Vitamin C
Vitamin E
Is a chemical that prevents an atom of molecule from losing one or more electrons to another atom or molecule, an event called oxidation. In certain cases when a transferred electron is stolen by another molecule called a free radical, the result can be devistating cell damage.
What is apoptosis?
Programed Cell Death.
. Cell death triggered by internal signals.
. Release of destructive enzymes
. Fragmentation of DNA
. Blebbing-Fragmentation of cytoplasm
What is programmed cell death?
What is life expectancy?
The longevity of an individual under a specific set of environmental conditions.
What is life span?
The speices specific longevity.
What is Necrosis?
Cell death as a result of injury.
Forensic Entomologist:
Crime Scene Investigator
. Studies Succession
What is Mimicry?
The situation in which a species has evolved so that it resembles (usually) another type of organism.
What is biological extinction?
Biological extinction is defined as the disappearance of the genetic blueprint of a biological species.
During early fetal development what is different about a male baby and a female baby?
Nothing. During the fetal stage all babies begin development the same way.
Testicular Fermentization:
. Remember story of Sara who found out she was really a man, because she had an XY chromosome, during testing before her track nationals.

. During early fetal development, all fetal reproductive organs are structurally female. If a fetus has a Y chromosome, two hormones (testosterone and melanin inhibitory factor) are released at a critical stae during development.

. These hormones bind to the receptors in the reproductive organ and cause it to develop into a male reproductive organ.

. In some males, their receptors are defective or absent during this critical developmental stage.

. Thus, their reproductive orhan remains female, dispite the presence of a Y chromosome.
Endangered Species Act:
. a result of political and social controversies over species becomming extinct U.S. legislation issued the Edangered Species Act.

. To assist in the protection of species near extinction (endangered)
Tropical Rainforests:
.Account for 50% of existing species
.Yet,less than 5% of earth's surface
.If we burn all the tropical rain forests, we will force as much as 50% of existing species into extinction.
How do living organisms adapt to environmental changes?
By generating individual variations within a species.
Two types of adaptation:
1. Behavioral Adaptation
2. Gentic Adapation
Behavioral Adaptation:
Example: When you move to a colder climate you wear a heavier coat.

This type of adaptation is the result of modification of preexisting characteristics to suit the need.
Genetic Adaptation:
Example: When individuals of a species migrate to a colder climate, only the individuals who have longer hair will survive.
What is a key factor for a species to survive?
The survival of a species depends heavily on the ability of the members of the species to adjust to environmental changes.
How does DNA undergo change?
Through mutation.
What are the three types of mutation?
1. Beneficial
2. Neutral
3. Detremental

Know that while mutations can be beneficial most muatations are nuetral or detremental.
Carolus Linnaeus:
. Sweedish Physician
. (1707-1778)
. Developed the first Systematic scheme in classifying living organisms.
. His primary interest was in plants
What is the genus and species name for humans?
Homo Sapiens
Life Span:
What we could live
Life expectancy:
What we are expected to live based on our environment.
Primary Succession:
. Occurs on bare, lifeless substrate such as, rocks or open water
. Gradual Occurance
. Example: New islands formed in the ocean by underseas volcanos.
Secondary Succession:
. Occurs in areas that have been disturbed.
. Originally these areas were occupied by living organisms
. Example: Mount St. Helens in 1980 fires.
Pioneer Community:
First organisms that inhabit the changing environment. (underwater vascualr plants such as pond weeds).
Biotic Factor:
Abiotic Factor:
Not living
(Producers) Not human can live by itself
Consumer that needs to eat
Looks like something else
Feed on Dead or Dacaying (Decomposing) Matters
Diseases that make you age:
1. Progeria
2. Werner's Syndrome
The naming and grouping togeter of species and groups of species.
Biologists who study the classification of living organisms.
What percentage of the total number of animal species are mammals?
0.4% of the total number of animal species are mammals.

~ There are 4,000 species of mammals ~
Charles Darwin:
. Published "Origin of Species" in 1859.
. "Origin of Species" discussed how a population of interbreeding individuals becomes two seperate populations.
. This book provieds an explanation for the existences of the large number of species and how one species can give rise to two different species.
The ectinction of an exsisting species leaves a biological niche for anther species to fill.
Change in DNA sequence having either a good (beneficial), bad (detrimental), or no (neutral) effect.
Artificial Selection:
Selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to promote the occurence of desirable inherited traits in offspring.
In Classification, the taxonomic category above species; the first part of a species' binomial.
Any Cancer Causing Agent
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.
In the life cycle of an organism that reproduces sexually, a cell containing a single set of chromosomes.
In an organism that reproduces sexually, a cell containing two homologus sets of chromosomes, one set inherited from each parent; a 2n cell.
What is Mutualism?
Mutualistic Symbiosis. Occurs when both organism benefit from the relationship that is essential for each of their survival.
What is Parasitism?
Parasitic Symbiosis. Occurs when one organism benefits form the other ant the other's detriment with out killing it.

Example: Virus
What is Commensalism?
Note Symbiosis.

When organism benefits from host with out harming or benefiting the host.
What was the name of Charles Darwin's ship?
The H.M.S. Beagle
Where did Charles Darwin's ship sail to?
The Southern Islands (Galapagos), South American Coast, and Austraila.
What was the name of Charles Darwin's Book?
"Origin of Species" by means of natural selcetion.
What is Progeria?
Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome is an extremely rare genetic disease that accelerates the aging proccess to about 7 times the normal rate. Because of the acceleration a child who is only 10 will have simillar resperitory, cardiocascular, and artheritic conditions that a 70 year old would have.
Internal Fertilzation:
(Adaptation to living on land)

. Reproduction inside female, less production of gametes, higher probability of fertilization, lower probablility of gametes drying up, allows for sexual selection, requires cooperative behavior between the sexes and development of sophisticated reproductive system.
External Fertilization:
Usually limited to animals living in water, large gonads, large number of gametes are produced, can release 100 million eggs each season. Very uncertain method of fertilization. Requires development of elaborate behavioral patterns to ensure that bout sexes release gametes at the same time and place.
A haploid sex cell formed in sexually reproducing organisms.
Male: Sperm
Female: Eggs
Greek for "Living Together"
What is Werner's Syndrome?
A genetic recessive disorder. It is a type of progeria diesease that occurs in adults ages twenty to thirty. People who are affected start to age rapidly beginning in their twenties and thirties and look as though they are twenty or more years older than what they actuall are. Strikes about 3 in every 1 million people world wide. Mostly common in Japan.
What is Alzheimer's?
About 4 million people in the U.S. have Alzheimer's. It is an illness that makes it hard for people to remember, think, and use language. It can make them act strange or seem moody. After a while people with this illness have a hard time cooking, using the phone, and handling money.
. More common in older adults
. Affects 1 in 10 people over the age of 65
. Affects 5 in 10 or 50% ofpeople over the age of 85
Plant Eaters
Meat and Plant Eaters
Meat Eaters
Ways to reproduce Asexually:
1. Budding
2. Fragmentation
3. Parthenogenesis
4. Binary Fission
Sexual Reproduction:
Production of haploid gametes (by both sexes) and their union to form a zygote. Both genomes involved in meiosis.

. Producion of a gentetically varible offspring
Asexual Reproduction:
The production of reduced (haploid) unreduced (diploid) eggs.

. Clonal inheritance(= indentical, unmodified genomes transmitted)
Which form of reproduction promotes diversity?
Sexual Reproduction.
What 5 events create variation in gametes?
1. Mutation
2. Cross Over
3. Random Alignment
4. Fertilization
5. Number of Chromosomes
Evolution of a new species from an existing species.
This is required for speciation to take place?
Genetic Isolation
What are three Postzygotic (post mating) reproductive barriers?
1. Reduced Hybrid Viability
2. Reduced Hybrid Fertility
3. Hybrid Breakdown
What are five prezygotic (pre mating) reproductive barriers?
1. Habitat Isolation
2. Temporal Isolation
3. Behavioral Isolation
4. Mechanical Isolation
5. Gametic Isolation
Mechanisms which prevent the fusion of egg and sperm so no zygote can form.
Mechanisms that prevent a zygote from developing into a fertile adult offspring.
Which is most common? Allopatric Speciation or Sympatric Speciation?
Allopatric Speciation.
Modification that increases the survival of a population in a given environment.
Fluctuations in the environment may cause a population to periodically experience a rapid decrease in their number, with only a few individuals from a large population surviving.
Causes of Genetic Drift:
1. Inbreeding
2. Bottlenecks
3. Founder effect
Directional Selection:
Peppered Moth
Irrecoverable loss of a species.
Founder Effect:
A few individuals from a large population establish, or found, a new population taht have alleles only form the founders.
Genetic Drift:
Change in allele frequencies over generations (usually to a small population)
How old is our planet?
4.6 billion years old
Non-random mating among closely related relatives.

A way in which genetic drift occurs.
Disruptive Selection:
Finch Beaks
Jean-Babtiste Lamarck: (1744-1829)
"New traits could be created over a life time." This person explained how one species develops from another. (We now believe that changes occur over generations not with in a life time).
Linnaeus: (1707-1787)
Creator of Taxonomy
Different ecological roles that need to be filled.
Darwin sailed to which famous Islands?
Galapagos Islands
When Darwin went to the Galapagos Islands what did he observe?
He noticed slight variations that made tortises form different islands recognizably distinct.

An array of unique finches
He beleived that Giraffes necks became long as a resultof cotinually stretching to reach high folliage. His hypothesis was incorrect.

Know that Lamarck was wrong!!!
Punctuated Equilibrium:
Contested by a view of episodes of rapid change and long periods of stasis.
Peppered Moth: (Industrial Melansim)
During the Industrial Revolution, soot and other industrial wastes darkend tree trunks and killed of lichens. The light-colored morph of the moth became rare and the dark morph became abundant. In 1819, the first melanic morph was seen; by 1896 it was far more uncommon--illustratiing rapid evolutionary change. Eventually light morphs were common in only few areas far from industrial areas. The cause of the change was thought to be selective predation by birds, which favored camoflage coloration in the moth. To this day the dark moth is still more popular in industrial areas and the light moth in non industrial woods.
Punctuated Equillibrium:
instead of a slow, continuous movement, evolution tends to be characterized by long periods of virtual standstill ("equilibrium"), "punctuated" by episodes of very fast development of new forms.
Organisms that break down the organic matter accumulated in their bodies of other organisms. (Mushrooms)
Ecological Selection:
Natural selection minus sexual selection. Strictly ecological processes that operate on a species with ou reference to mating or secondary sex characteristics.

. Inheritence of species is determined by ecology alone.
What are the three domains of life?
1. Eukarya (All Eukaryotes)
2. Eubacteria (or simply bacteria)
3. Archaea
Types of Pre-zygotic Barriers:
Pre-zygotic Barriers

1. Temporal Isolation: common route of sympatric speciation (Mating, flowering different seasons, times of day etc.)

2. Spatial (Habitat) isolation:populations live in different locations and do not meet. (route of allopatric speciation)

3. Behavioral isolation: no species recognition, ineffective courtship signals

4. Mechanical isolation: structural differences in genitalia or flower anatomy prevent copulation or pollen transfer

-copulatory courtship effects female choice during mating

5. Gametic isolation: female and male gametes fail to unite in fertilization (sperm competition, no gamete recognition)
Types of Post-Zygotic Reproductive Barriers:
Post-zygotic Barriers

1. Hybrid inviability: hybrid fails to develop or fails to reach sexual maturity

2. Behavioral sterility: hybrid reaches sexual maturity but fails to produce appropriate courtship displays or mating behavior (plants may grow flowers that fail to attract pollinators)

3. Hybrid sterility: hybrids fail to produce functional gametes
Evidence for Punctuated Equilibrium:
1. Relatively few examples of transitional forms in the fossil record
Speciation favors small populations

2. Fossil record shows evidence of species remaining unchanged for relatively long periods of time.

3. Abrupt extinction events occur in the fossil record.
What is Taxonomy?
The science of describing, classifying, and organizing organisms according to their similarities and differences.
What is Systematics?
The study of evolutonary relationships between organisms.
Classified animals formally 100 years prior to darwin.
Phyletic Gradualism:
Species change is the result of long, cumulative changes).
Tempo of Speciation:
1. Phyletic Gradualism
2. Punctuated Equilibrium
What happens during REM sleep?
Once we doze off, we experience 90-minutes cycles of Non-REM and REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep. Non-REM or Delta sleep dominates the first part of a night's sleep, while REM or dreaming sleep commands the second half.

Using the EEG (electroencephalogram), which measures brain waves, researchers have shown that most people remember their dreams most often when they awake from REM (Rapide Eye Movement). In REM sleep, our eyes flutter inside their lids as if scanning the dreams we're experiencing. What exactly dreams are, and why almost every mammal has them, is still a mystery.

During REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep, the brain actively paralyses the body, sending signals to muscles in the limbs, face, and mouth that prevent us from acting out our dreams. When we talk or walk in our sleep, it's often because the brain, for reasons that are not clear, is failing in its attempt to send those paralyzing signals.
Distinction between REM sleep and SWS sleep:
The traditional distinction between REM and SWS sleep is based on the pattern of activity obtained from scalp electrodes attached to the scalp. This electroencephalographic measure (EEG) shows increased amplitudes and higher power at lower frequencies during SWS sleep. The EEG pattern during REM sleep is basically indistinguishable from that in the awake state and is characterized by low amplitudes and higher frequencies. Eye movements (ROG) and muscle tension in the chin (EMG) are used to differentiate the REM state from the awake state.
Density Dependand Factors:
As a population increases the rate of growth is slowed by increasing the death rate or decreasing the birth rate.

1. Competition for limited resources

2. Accumulation of waste products or toxins

3. Predation, parasitism, or disease

4. Intrinsic Factors (Behaviral Interactions)
Density Independant Factors:
Population is greatly affected.

1. Climate
2. Weather Events
3. Natural Disasters
Interactions of biotic factors in ecosystems:
. Competition
. Predation
. Symbiosis
10% Rule:
For every conversion:

90% of the energy is lost as heat.
0nly 10% is abaliable for use.
What factors affect animal population growth?
Density Dependent Factors
Density Independent Factors
Components of an Ecosystem:h
Herbivores-plants or algae
Carnivores-other animals
Omnivores-plants and animals
Decomposers-breakdown dead organic
What is a Biome?
. Wide Land Area
. Classified by predominant vegetation
. Characterized by adaptations of organisms to that area
. Influenced by climate
Use inorganic nutrients and an outside energy source to produce organic nutrients. (Producers)
Must consume a performed source of organic nutrients (they must eat)

How are ecosystems shaped?
1. Interactions between individuals, populations and communities

2. Interactions between abiotic and biotic factors

Abiotic: Non-Living
Biotic: Living
The Human Body: (As an Ecosystem)
. 750 trillion microorganisms
. More than 200 species
. Comminsalistic, mutualistic, and parasitic relationships
. Unique ecological niches (Niches: different ecological roles)
Microbial Antagonism:
Which insect carries lyme disease?
Deer Tick
What is ring worm?
A parasite that is not actually a worm.
. Right after falling asleep, there is slow EEg activity. This stage is called slow wave sleem (SWS).
. Second stage, the EEG reveals very fast activity. They eyes move rapidly, giving this stage its other famous name-REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep.
. REM: time we dream
. The brain reviews and sorts the knowledge from the day
. Assording to theory: sleep is required for learning and memory
How much sleep to teens need?
8 1/2 to 9 1/4 hrs per night
What causes teen stress?
Competition for Jobs
Why do we age?
1. Genetic Basis
2. Whole Body Process
3. Extrinsic Factors-UV light, Exercise and Diet
What are extrinsic factors?
UV light
. Decrease in muscle mass and strength
. Increase in impotency
. Decline in cognitive performance
. Increase in sleep disturbance
. Migration of adipose fat to the central part of the body
LDL- Low Density Lipoproteins bring cholesteral to cell for plasma membranes or hormone synthesis.

HDL- High Density Lipoproteins removes excess cholesterol to liver for disposal into bile (small intestine)
Skin Cancer:
1. Basal Cell Carcinoma: 300,000-400,000 every year

2. Squamous Cell Carcinoma: 80,000-100,000

3. Melanoma 45,000-50,000
Basal Cell Carcinoma:
. Layer of skin beneath the skin surface
. Excessive and chronic sun exposure
. Fair Complexion
. Early effective treatment has a cure
rate of 95%
Squamous Cell Carcinoma:
. Develops in the outer layer of the skin
. Excessive chronic exposure
. Fair complexion
. A skin cancer that arises in melanocytes, the dark pigment of cells of the skin.

. Melanoma usually arises in a pre-existing mole or other pigmented lesion.
What is the amount of cancer risk for a person who both smokes and drinks?
40 times greater than any one else.
Hayflick's Limit:
Cells have biological clocks (a limited potential for cell division).

Most mammalian cells die after dividing 50-60 times
What is the difference between a normal human brain and the brain of an Alzheimer's patient?
An Alzheimer's patient has plaques in their brain.

They have abnormal build ups in the spaces between normal brain's nerve cells.

The build ups are a protein called BETA AMYLOID
The build up in the brain's nerve cells of a person with Alzheimers.
The Aging Brain:
. Degenerative Brain Disease
. Sufferers are confused, undoing menatlly and physically
. 1 in 10 over the age of 65
. 50% over the age of 85
Sources of Antioxidants:
. Vitamin A
. Vitamin C
. Beta Cerotine
. Vitamin E
Termination of an individual life
Climax Community:
Final stage of succession in a raricular area.

Dependant on the climate
Forensic Entemology:
. Forensics refers to the determination of the cause, location and time of death

. Entemology is the study of insects
Succession at a crime scene:
. Forensic Entemology
. Is the use of insect knowledge in the investigation of crimes or even in civil disputes.
How long ago did the dinosaurs disappear?
65 million years ago
What was the most drastic episode of Mass extinction?
The end of the Permian period 248 million years ago

95% of all marine animals became extinct due to Pangea shifting
How many major episodes of mass extinction have occured?
Bottleneck Effect:
. Inbreeding due to population reduction
. Reduce Genetic Variations
. Lack Adapdability
. Threaten the survival of the species
Somatic Vs Germline (Gametes)
. Mutations arising in the somatic cell are not transmitted to future genterations.

. Germline (Gametes) mutations are passed on from generation to generation
Diploid Guards against Mutation:
Diploidy promotes Hybrid Vigor
. 60% protein in bone cartilage
. significant protion of skin, ligament, tendon, tooth dentin, and connective tissue
. Has a percise structure
. Different Collagen Mutations = Distinct Disorders
Spontaneous Mutation
Not caused by exposure to Mutagen

Errors in DNA replication

DNA bases have slight chemical instability
Induced Mutations: (Somatic Cells)
. Chemicals and radiation cause mutations
. Chemicals causing muations are called mutagens
. Chemicals causing cancer are carcinogens
Mutations and evolution:
. Fast growing bacteria was used to study mutation

. Natural selection operates on genetic variations made possible by mutations
Types of mutation:
1. Neutral
2. Harmful
3. Beneficial
What type of mutation is Sickle Cell Anemia?
Benificial and Harmful
Neutral Mutation:
Has no apparent advantages of disadvantages
Harmful Mutation:
Detrimental or even lethal to individual
Beneficial Mutation:
Provides survival/reproductive advantages to the individual
What kind of mutation is hemophilia?
How many species reproduce regularly by asexual reproduction?
Less than 1%
What is Sexual Reproduction?
Compining genetic materials from two individuals to form the offspring
Where does fertilization take place?
Internal Fertilization: Land Animals (except birds and slugs)

External Fertilization: Water Environment (examples: Fish and frogs)
Which requires more gametes Internal or External Fertilization?
External Fertilzation
What is the key to rapid genetic changes in sexual reproduction?
Peppered Moths and Industrial Melansim
Natural Selection favors dark-colored moths in areas of heavy pollution, while light collered moths survive better in unpolluted areas
The capicity for number of offspring is higher in sexual or asexual reproduction?
Asexual Reproduction
What kingdom has the most members?
Which skin cancer is the deadliest?

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