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Energy from sun harvested during process known as
Subsequent breakdown of sugars and complex organic molecules they provide energy for cell function.
Light energy
moving photons
CO2 + H2O =
sugars (high energy) + O2
In plants, photosynthesis occurs in
only about _% of solar energy is used to make chemical energy
Complex sugars Amino acids Proteins Lipids (fats) RNA DNA
complex organic moelcules
Energy for metabolic work is made available
during respiration, sugars + O2 =
ATP + low energy ( CO2 + H20)
respiration occurs in⬦
Cytoplasm and Mitochondria
______ cells can only do respiration
animal ; plant can do both resp and photo
Russian plant geneticist Nikolai Vavilov and \"centers of domestication\"
\" Credited with developing the theory of plant immunity \" Traveled the globe collecting plant material; est. largest collection of seeds in the world (Leningrad) and \"Watched over the seed collection during the Siege of Leningrad (28 mo.) despite nearly starving to death. An assistant did starve, surrounded by seeds. \"Jailed in 1940 for defending genetics as a science
Early studies about origins of crops inferred from ___ Finds
Mid-20th century began to look at...
chromosome homology, allelic variants (i.e. allozymes), and population genetics of crop species
DNA-based molecular markers
Domestication syndrome
\"Increase ease of harvest \"Reduce shattering \"More determinate growth \"Greater inflorescence size \"Greater seed (or fruit) size \"Loss of seed dormancy
What processes contribute to the diversity of life on earth?
natural selection, artificial selection(Leads to desired characteristics), genetic drift
How artificial selection differs from natural selection
Artificial selection works to effectively eliminate variation, and create “true-breeding” individuals
sunflowers are native where?
Native to Great Plains region of central US
sunflowers were used by? before 1500s
native americans
sunflowers went to _____ in 1500s and then went to _____ by peter the great because they used them for ___
europe, russia, oil
traps heat in the atmosphere
􀂄 Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and other important nutrients 􀂄 Immobile 􀂄 Diverse biochemistry 􀂄 Wood, fiber, and dyes
the study between people and plants
Richard Evans Schultes
Worked with many tribal groups in Mexico and Northwest Amazon and immersed himself in village life 􀂄 Huge interest in psychoactive drugs
“Indigenous peoples”
peoples who follow traditional, nonindustrial lifestyles in areas they have occupied for generations Link between production and consumption more direct
study of pollen
Fire ecology
looks at historic burning regimes and its effects on plants Explores historic and ancient documents on the use of plants
Food can be... 2 kinda
􀂄 Wild gathered plant foods 􀂄 Cultivated plant foods - Agriculture
wild gathered food example
Pine nuts or Pitaya fruit
Came about independently in several parts of the world during the last 10,000 yrs.
Mexico agriculture
corn, squash
Middle East
wheat barley
South America
tomatoes and potatoes
plants in markets
guatamala or India
plants in shelter
log cabins - bamboo, palm
__% of world’s population still served by traditional plant medicine
__%of all pharmaceutical drugs originated from plants and from indigenous peoples remedies
Oldest evidence of medicinal plant use
Neanderthal man was found buried surrounded by 8 plants that are seen as medicinal plants today – 60,000 yrs. ago
Why are Medicinal Plants Medicinal?
Since plants are stationary they must produce chemical agents that 􀂄 Attract and/or reward animal pollinators and seed dispersers 􀂄 Repel, injure, or poison animals that attempt to destroy them
Foxglove – cure for?
dropsy, currently the drug of choice for certain heart conditions
Quinine – treatment for
Taxol compound in bark treats...
lung cancer and reduces breast and ovarian cancer tumors
Madagascar or Rosy Periwinkle treats...
Alkaloids cure...
childhood leukemia, Hodgkin’s disease, and breast cancer 􀂄 Slows or halts white blood cell production
Opium Poppy (seeds, tender leaves, and dried sap)
Seeds – oil and food Tender leaves – food Dried sap - opium
narcotic and pain reliever
synthetic derivative of morphine
􀂄 Study of animal behavior and medicinal botany 􀂄 Another way to find new medicinal plants
treat infections, malaria, and scurvy
Chewing bitter pith
Local people use – Intestinal problems and parasites Lab studies show – antibiotic, antiparasitic, and antitumor compounds
plants in fuel
Deforestation in dry regions is an issue
plants in clothing
cotton(3,200 BC,asia and precolumbia)
“Tapa cloth”
made from bark and plant dyes
Dye Plants example
plants in Transportation
covered wagon (land) reed boat (water)
plants in industrial products
Bee Baskets in Senegal, West Africa Made from grasses and palm cordage/string from palm leaves to make hammocks and bags
The Making of a Seemar in Tamil Nadu, India
have to get palms on Anna Malai – Elephant Mountain, collect and dry leaves, make cordage, construction of brooms
Life on earth is solar powered 􀂾 Energy flow…
Sun - Living organisms - Back to space
what is lost at each step of the energy flow?
Successive TROPHIC levels
More like a⬦ FOOD WEB not that simple
3 Ecological Pyramids
number, biomass, and energy
What is a calorie?
Amount of heat needed to heat 1 gram of liquid water by 1 C.
Ecological efficiency
􀂾 Percentage of energy as biomass (grams) transferred from one trophic level to next 􀂾 5% to 20% (10% typical) 􀂾 90% loss from level to level
Community of organisms and its non-living, physical environment
Gross Primary Productivity
Rate of conversion of solar energy to chemical energy (organic molecules) -wet places higher than like, deserts
Gross Primary Productivity does what to the number of consumers?
limits. 􀁺 Finite source of energy and mass available for consumption
Carrying capacity of an ecosystem or planet
Maximum number or mass of individuals that can be supported
The Carbon Cycle
􀂾CO2 enters living organisms through photosynthesis 􀂾CO2 leaves living organisms through respiration, combustion, erosion of limestone rocks, etc…
CO2 is major “Greenhouse gas”
Largest temperature increases will occur at earth’s
For each 1o C increase, climate belts will shift north or south by ____ miles
60- 90 miles
penetrates deepest, long wave
vitamin D production.
short wave, most powerful
Most of the ozone occurs in the...between 10-25 miles above earth
Ozone absorbs most (95%) of harmful solar ...
uvb and uvc
Billions of years ago before photosynthesis⬦ no __ in atmosphere
____ _____produced O2 which diffused into the atmosphere
Photosynthetic cyanobacteria
Presence of O3 in the atmosphere allowed colonization of land because...
of less harmful UV radiation reaching surface of earth
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) destroy what? and take how many years to rise there? and reamain there for how long?
03 in stratosphere; 11-20 years; unreactive--average 75 – 111 years
UV radiation breaks down CFC’s 􀁺 Releases free chlorine atoms
Chlorine atoms break down ozone.. one chlorine atom can break down 100,000 ozone molecules
Soil is: __ layer of earth\'s crust; created by _____ of ____; thickness = < _ in to over __ ft
thin; weathering of rocks; 1 inch, 10 ft
Soil particle size classification⬦ (4)
biggest- stone, sand, silt, clay
Based on % of sand, silt, and clay present
“LOAM” is a good agricultural soil..consists of what?
􀂾 40% sand 􀂾 40% silt 􀂾 20% clay
LOAM is good becuase
Provides good aeration, holds together, not too sticky.
______ particles have larger TOTAL surface area per unit volume of soil and example
smaller; 1 Ib of clay = 2.5 acres
30 – 60% of soil volume occupied by...
air and water
Air in soil is supplies _____ to roots
Of all elements commonly found on earth (over 90), only __ are essential to plants
Needed in larger amounts (>0.05% dry weight) -(variety of elements)
Needed in smaller amounts -(metals necessary mostly for proper enzyme function)
As transpiration occurs ⬦
mineral elements are deposited in the leaf
A complete lack of any one of these 16 elements will result in⬦
􀂾 1) Plant can’t grow normally 􀂾 2) Plant will not reproduce 􀂾 3) Specific deficiency symptoms which depend on a) Function of element in plant 􀁺 b) Mobility of element in phloem
Element mobile in phloem (Nitrogen)
Older leaves show deficiency first
Element NOT mobile in phloem (iron)
Younger leaves show deficiency
Yellowing of leaf known as
􀂾 Soil-free plant culture in nutrient solution with aeration 􀂾 Hydroponics used to test whether a nutrient is required
Fertilizers used to replace nutrients when...
plants grow and are harvested
The 3 numbers indicate how much the fertilizer contains ⬦
1- nitrogen 2- phosphurus 3- potassium
􀂾 Excess nutrients in water 􀂾 Causes algal bloom, then algae die 􀂾 Rotting of algae consumes oxygen 􀂾 Lack of oxygen kills other organisms
Causes “DEAD WATERS” like in the gulf of mexico
In the US, erosion removes soil __ times faster than it is formed
16 times faster
Soil erosion can be caused
naturall occurring or by human activity
Dustbowl of the 1930’s in the USA. How and why?
Change in climate and abuse of the land

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