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USMLE Step 1 Goljan Nutrition


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Where does calcitonin work?
Osteoclast inhibits bone reabsorption
What receptor does PTH hook on?
What does PTH releases?
IL-1 Osteoclast activating factor
What keeps a check on IL-1?
Testosteron and Estrogen
Why do women get osteoporosis?
Menopausal Women, breaking bone down since IL-1 is not checked
What enzyme is in the S.E.R. when you have increase P-450?
Gamma-glutamyl transferase

- key tests for alcoholics
Why does renal dz causes vitamin D deficiency? Caused by Diabetes Mellitus
no alpha-1-hydroxylase
Vitamin D from the store, what happens to it before it becomes activate?
25-OH D activated in the liver
- 1,25 OH D in kidneys by alpha-hydroxylase
Hypervitaminosis D? What happens?
Increase Calcium (hypercalcemia), more Calcium in urine causing Stones.
Type I Vitamin D is what?
Missing alpah-1-hydroxylase
What is wrong with Type II Vitamin D deficiency?
Bad receptors
What is vitamin E main fuction?
- Prevent lipid peroxidation of cell membranes
- protect membrane from breaking down by phospholipid A
- neutralizes oxidis LDL (makes it less injurious), i.e. cardioprotective
Who gets Vitamine E deficiency?
Cystic Fibrosis Patients
Does vitamin E deficiency cause hemolytic anemia?
Yes! Susceptible to membrane damage (radical)
Does vitamin E help myelin?
Yes! Problems neurologicly since they disrupt the membranes in the brain. Spinalcerebellar Dz
What vitamin enhances the activity of warfarin?
Vitamin E excess!
What changes k2(inactive) to k1?
epoxide reductase
k1 gamma carboxylates activates factors II, VII, IX, X
hydroxylates proline and lisine
activates them so they are fucntional
Warfarin does what?
Blocks epoxide reductase, all vitamin K is K2 (inactive)
Vitamine K deficiency?
Prolong Antibiotics
Poor Diets
New Borns

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