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Chapter 1 INST


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a disturbance in normal functioning (mental, physical, or psychological)
a condition resulting from a loss of physical functioning; or difficulties in learning and social adjustment that significatnly interfere with normal growth and development.
A limitation imposed on an individual by the environment and the person's capacity to cope with that limitation
any individual whose physical, mental, or behavioral performance deviates so substavtially from the average (higher or lower) that additional support is required to meet the individual's needs
gifts and talents
extraordinary abilities in one or more areas
learning disabilites
a condtion in which one or more of an individual's basic psychological processes in understanding or using language are deficient
mental retardation
substantial limitations in functioning, characterized by significantly subaverage intellectual functioning concurrent with related limitations into two or more adaptive skills. (manifests itself before age 18)
a term used to describe individuals who have hearing losses greater than 75 to 80 dB, have vision as their primary input, and cannot understand speech through the ear.
making an individual unable to reproduce, usually accomplished surgically
establishments or facilities governed by a collection of fundamental rules
Section 504
Provision within the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilites in federally assisted programs and activities
Civil Righting Act of 1964
Legislation passed in the U.S. that prohibits discrimination against individuals on the basis of race, sex, religion, or national origin.
Americans with Disabilities Act
Civil rights legislation in the U.S. that provides a mandate to end discrimination against people with disabilites in private sectore employment, all public service, public accommodations, transportation, and telecommunications.
Reasonable accommodations
requirements within ADA to ensure that a person with a disability has an equal chance of participation. The intent is to create a fair and level playing field (employment, transportation, or telecommunications)
Barrier-free facility
a building or other structure that is designed and constructed so that people with mobility disabilities (such as those in wheelchairs) can move freely through all areas without encountering architectural obstructions
Medical model
model by which human development is viewed according to two dimensions: normal and pathological. Normal refers to the absence of biological problems; pathological refers to alterations in the organism caused by disease.
alterations in an organism that are caused by disease
nature v. nurture
controversy concerning how much of a person's ability is related to sociocultural influences (nurture) as opposed to genetic factors
professionals who specializes in the study of heredity
genetics counselors
specially trained professionals who counsel people about their chances of producting a seriously ill infant, in reference to their genetic history
physical therapists
professionals who provide services that help resore function,improve mobility, relieve pain, and prevent or limit permanent physical disabilities. They help resore, maintain and promote overall fitness and health for people of all ages
occupational therapists
professionals who specialize in developing self-care, work and play activities to increase independent function and quality of life, enhance development, and prevent disability
the process by which new objects or situations elicit responses that were previously elicited by other stimuli
ecological approach
an approach in psychology that ascribes abnormal behavior more to the interaction of an individual with the environment that to disease.
neurotic disorders
behavior characterized by combinations of anxieties, compulsions, obsessions, and phobias
psychotic disorders
a general term referring to a serious behavior disorder resulting in a loss of contact with reality and characterized by delusions, hallucinations, or illusions
the behavior of individuals who are unable to adapt to social roles or to estab. appropriate interpersonal relationships

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