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A/S - local anesthesia


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Anesthesia - local anesthesia
Anesthesia - local anesthesia
How to local anesthetics work?
prevent sensory nerve xmission at axon, may also control voluntary motor control of a body part
Do local anesthetics effect the brain?
Not when properly dosed - they reach the brain only in vy dilute amounts
What are some application methods for local anesthetics (7)?
topical, infiltration, nerve blocks, line/ring blocks, intr-articular, regional anesthesia, epidural
Three topical application methods
skin, eyes, mm
What is the most common application method for topical anesthetics?
Describe infiltration application of a local anesthetics and what it is used for
drug is injected SC around site and difuses to site - used for wounds, small skin cysts, tumors, warts
How does nerve block application of local anesthetics work? Used for?
drug injected near (not into) specific nerve & blocks sensation from area distal to inj site - used for lameness examns in horses & cattle, and bovine dohorning, eye surg, etc
Describe line/ring block - what used for?
continuous line or ring of drug injected proximal to body part - used for feline declaws & bovine teat or digit surg
Describe intra-articular application - what used for?
drug injected into joint - used for post surgical pain mgmt
describe regional anesthetic application - what used for?
drugs injected where major nerves exit spinal cord - used for analgesia of entire limb, caudal trunk
Describe epidural application
drug placed into epidural space, administerd through dorsal aspect of lumbosacral space, blocks sensation & motor control caudal to injection
What is epidural application used for?
LA obstetric & vaginal prolapses, SA c-section, post-surg mgmt of profound pain
What are some precautions for epidural application (4)?
Reqs ventral recumbency & sedation, reqs surgical clip & prep, elevate head to prev drug from traveling forward
What application method may cause inflammation, swelling, and delayed wound healing?
Injection into a nerve may cause temporary ___ or permanent ___
temp neuritis, perm nerve damage
If a local anesthetic drug reaches the brain in high concentration, what may happen?
seizures, death
injections of any local anesthetic req ___ & ___
clip & prep
What is potentiation?
One drug increases the effectiveness of another drug
What drug potentiates local anesthetics by causing peripheral vasoconstriction which delays absorption of the drug thus it stays in the site longer?
Name some loca anesthetics (6)
Lidocaine, Bupivicaine, Mepivicaine, Procaine, Proparacaine, Cetacaine
What is the most common local anesthetic? Onset? duration?
Lidcaine, immediate onset, duration of 1-2 hours
What local anesthetic is used in horses and has less tissue reaction?
What local anesthetic is fairly common, has a slower onset than Lidocaine and longer duration
What local anesthetic may be used in bovines?
What local anesthetic is a ophthalmic topical?
What local anesthetic used to be used for feline intubation but was found to cause Heinz body anemia?

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