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Master AP Prep


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The right to use power.
Appointed officials who operate government agencies and large corporations
bureaucratic theory
A theory that bureaucrats make the key governing decisions. According to this theory the influence of government bureaucracies has become so great that elected officials are almost powerless to affect policy.
A word used to describe at least three different political systems that each embody the principle of popular rule, if only in the interests of the people. See democratic centralism, direct democracy, representative democracy.
democratic centralism
A form of democracy in which the true interests of the masses were discovered through discussion within the Communist party, and then decisions were made under central leadership to serve those interests.
direct (participatory) democracy
A form of democracy in which most, or all, of the citizenry participate directly by either holding office or making policy.
People with a disproportionate amount of a valued resource.
elitist theory
A theory that a few top leaders make the key decisions without reference to popular desires.
What makes a law or constitution a source of rightful power.
Marxist theory
The ideology espoused by Karl Marx which holds that government is a reflection of economic forces, primarily ownership of the means of production. The economic structure of a society shapes its politics and determines political outcomes.
pluralist theory
A theory that holds that political resources are divided among different kinds of elites, giving relevant interest the chance to influence the outcome of decisions. Policies are made by conflict and bargaining among organizations that represent affected groups.
political power
Power used to determine who will hold government office and how the government will behave.
The ability of one person to cause another person to act in accordance with the first person's intentions.
power elite
A political theory espoused by C. Wright Mills which holds that an elite of corporate leaders, top military officers, and key political leaders make most political decisions.
representative democracy
A political system in which political power is conferred on those selected by voters in competitive elections.
Weber, Max
German historian and sociologist who criticized the theories of Karl Marx, arguing that all institutions have fallen under the control of large bureaucracies whose expertise is essential to the management of contemporary affairs.
amendment (constitutional)
A change in, or addition to, a constitution. Amendments are proposed by a two-thirds vote of both houses of Congress or by a convention called by Congress at the request of two-thirds of the state legislatures and ratified by approval of three-fourths of the states.
Opponents to the ratification of the Constitution who valued liberty above all else and believed it could be protected only in a small republic. They emphasized states' rights and worried that the new central government was too strong.
Articles of Confederation
The document establishing a "league of friendship" among the American states in 1781. The government proved too weak to rule effectively and was replaced by the current Constitution.
Beard, Charles
A historian who argued that the Constitution was designed to protect the economic self-interest of its framers. Beard's view is largely rejected by contemporary scholars.
bill of attainder
A law that declares a person, without trial, to be guilty of a crime. The state legislatures and Congress are forbidden to pass such acts, Article 1, Sections 9 and 10, of the Constitution.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
checks and balances
The power of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government to block some acts by the other two branches.
Part of a theory espoused by James Madison that hypothesized that different interests must come together to form an alliance in order for republican government to work. He believed that alliances formed in a large republic, unlike in small ones, would be moderate due to the greater variety of interests that must be accommodated.
Constitutional Convention
A meeting of delegates in 1878 to revise the Articles of Confederation, which produced a totally new constitution still in use today.
ex post facto law
A law which makes criminal an act that was legal when in was committed, or that increases the penalty for a crime after it has been committed, or that changes the rules of evidence to make conviction easier. The state legislatures and Congress are forbidden to pass such laws by Article 1, Sections 9 and 10, of the Constitution.
A term employed by James Madison to refer to interests that exist in society, such as farmers and merchants, northerners and southerners, debtors and creditors. Madison postulated that each interest would seek its own advantage and that the pulling and hauling among them would promote political stability on a national basis.
The division of power between a national government and regional (state) governments.
Federalist No. 10
An essay composed by James Madison which argues that liberty is safest in a large republic because many interests (factions) exist. Such diversity makes tyranny by the majority more difficult since ruling coalitions will always be unstable.
Federalist papers
A series of eighty-five essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay that were published in New York newspapers to convince New Yorkers to adopt the newly proposed Constitution.
A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.
Great Compromise
The agreement that prevented the collapse of the Constitutional Convention because of friction between large and small states. It reconciled their interests by awarding states representation in the Senate on a basis of equality and in the House of Representatives in proportion to each state's population.
judicial review
The power of courts to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional. It is also a way of limiting the power of popular majorities.
line-item veto
The power of an executive to veto some provisions in an appropriations bill while approving others. The president does not have the right to exercise a line-item veto and must approve or reject an entire appropriations bill.
natural rights
A philosophical belief expressed in the Declaration of Independence that certain rights are ordained by God, are discoverable in nature and history, and are essential to human progress. The perception that these rights were violated by Great Britain contributed to the American Revolution
New Jersey Plan
A plan of government proposed by William Patterson as a substitute for the Virginia Plan in an effort to provide greater protection for the interests of small states. It recommended that the Articles of Confederation should be amended, not replaced, with a unicameral Congress, in which each state would have an equal vote.
The form of government intended by the Framers that operates through a system of representation.
separation of powers
An element of the Constitution in which political power is shared among the branches of government to allow self-interest to check selfinterest.
Shay's Rebellion
A rebellion in 1787 by ex-Revolutionary War soldiers who feared losing their property over indebtedness. The former soldiers prevented courts in western Massachusetts from sitting. The inability of the government to deal effectively with the rebellion showed the weakness of the political system at the time and led to support for revision of the Articles of Confederation.
unalienable rights
Rights thought to be based on nature and providence rather than on the preferences of people.
Virginia Plan
A plan submitted to the Constitutional Convention that proposed a new form of government, not a mere revision of the Articles of Confederation. The plan envisioned a much stronger national government structured around three branches. James Madison prepared the initial draft.
writ of habeas corpus
A court order directing a police officer, sheriff, or warden who has a person in custody to bring the prisoner before a judge to show sufficient cause for his or her detention. The purpose of the order is to prevent illegal arrests and unlawful imprisonment. Under the Constitution, the writ cannot be suspended, except during invasion or rebellion.
Article VI
A provision of the Constitution that makes the laws and treaties of the federal government the "supreme law of the land."
block grants
Grants given by the federal government to state and local authorities for general purpose.
categorical grants
Grants given by the federal government to state and local authorities for a specific purpose defined in a federal law.
confederation (or confederal system)
A form of government in which sovereignty is wholly in the hands of the states and local governments, so the national government is dependent on their will.
conditions of aid
A condition which a state government must fulfill for taking federal funds.
The effort on the part of the national government to pass responsibility for functions and responsibilities previously held by the national government on to the state governments.
dual federalism
An interpretation of the Constitution which holds that states are as supreme within their sphere of power as is the federal government within its sphere of power. The Supreme Court no longer supports this interpretation.
federal system
A form of government in which sovereignty is shared, so that on some matters the national government is supreme and on others the states are supreme.
Federal funds provided to states and localities.
intergovernmental lobby
Lobbying activities by state and local officials who establish offices in Washington, D.C., to compete for federal funds.
Requirements imposed against state and local governments to perform. The requirements may have nothing to do with the receipt of federal funds and may originate from court orders.
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
A Supreme Court decision that settled two issues. First, Congress can exercise powers not specifically mentioned in the Constitution if the power can be implied from an enumerated one. This authority is conferred by the "necessary and proper" clause. Second, the federal government is immune from taxation by the states.
necessary-and-proper clause
The final paragraph of Article 1, section 8, of the Constitution, which authorizes Congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers.
A doctrine espoused on behalf of the states' rights position which holds that states are empowered to void federal laws considered in violation of the Constitution.
revenue sharing
A grant-in-aid program that allowed states maximum discretion in the spending of federal funds. States were not required to supply matching funds, and they received money according to a statistical formula. The program was terminated in 1986.
The supreme or ultimate political authority. A sovereign government is one that is legally and politically independent of any other government.
Tenth Amendment
An amendment to the Constitution which defines the powers of the states, stipulating that the states (or the people) retain all powers not specifically delegated to the national government by the Constitution.
unitary system
A system in which sovereignty is wholly in the hands of the national government, so that subnational units are dependent on its will.
cue (political)
A signal, frequently provided by interest groups, that tells a politician what values are at stake in an issue and how that issue fits into his or her own set of political beliefs.
direct mail
A mailing from an interest group focused at a specialized audience whose purpose is both to raise money and mobilize supporters.
Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act of 1946
A law which required groups and individuals seeking to influence legislation to register with the secretary of the Senate and the clerk of the House of Representatives. Quarterly financial reports on expenses were also to be filed. Note new reform legislation (1995) was more stringent.
ideological interest group
An organization that attracts members by appealing to their interests on a coherent set of controversial principles.
Something of value offered by mass-membership organizations to get people to join; it is a benefit exclusive to members.
institutional interests
Individuals or organizations representing other organizations.
interest group
An organization that seeks to influence public policy.
A group that attempts to influence legislation through direct contact with members of the legislative or executive branches.
A person attempting to influence government policy on behalf of a lobby.
material incentive
Something tangible, such as money or services, which attracts people to join mass-membership organizations.
membership interests
A type of interest group that represents the interest of its members.
pluralistic political system
A description of the American political system, once used by scholars, contending that the policy-making process encompasses the effective competition of interest groups. This account is generally considered wrong, or at least incomplete.
political action committee
An organization which finances candidates and may lobby. Such organizations can contribute no more than $5,000 to a federal candidate in any election.
public-interest lobby
An interest group whose principal purpose is to benefit nonmembers.
purposive incentive
An incentive to join a mass-membership organization based on the appeal of the group's goal.
A type of cue supplied by some interest groups that ranks legislators on their degree of support for a particular cause, such as unions or the environment. These can be helpful sources of information, but are often biased.
social movement
A widely shared demand for change in some aspect of the social or political order.
solidary incentive
An inducement that attracts people out of gregarious or gameloving instincts. It is one reason why people become involved in a state or local party organization.
A belief that Americans consider themselves bound by common values and common hopes.
civic competence
A belief that one can affect government policies.
civic duty
The belief that citizens have an obligation to participate in civic and political affairs.
class consciousness
The tendency to think of oneself as a worker whose interests are in opposition to those of management and vice versa.
culture war
A split in the United States reflecting differences in people's beliefs about private and public morality, and regarding what standards ought to govern individual behavior and social arrangements.
Self esteem, competence or mastery.
equality of opportunity
An economic value in American culture which maintains that all people should have the same opportunity to get ahead but that people should be paid on the basis of ability rather than on the basis of need.
external efficacy
The belief that the political system will respond to citizens. This belief has declined in recent years because of public sentiment that the government has become too big to be responsive.
internal efficacy
Confidence in one's own ability to understand and to take part in political affairs. This confidence has remained stable over the past few decades.
orthodox (social)
One of two camps in the culture war that believes morality is as important (or even more so) than self-expression and that moral rules are derived from God.
political ideology
A coherent and consistent set of beliefs about who ought to rule, what principles rulers ought to obey, and what policies rulers ought to pursue.
political culture
A distinctive and patterned way of thinking about how political and economic life ought to be carried out.
political efficacy
The sense that citizens have the capacity to understand and influence political events.
progressive (social)
One of two camps in the culture war that believes personal freedom is more important than traditional rules and that rules depend on the circumstances of modern life.
A preoccupation of the American political culture that has imbued the daily conduct of politics with a kind of adversarial spirit.
secular humanism
The belief that moral standards do not require religious justification.
work ethic
A tradition of Protestant churches that required a life of personal achievement as well as religious conviction; a believer had an obligation to work, save money, obey the secular law, and do good works. Max Weber attributed the rise of capitalism, in part, to this ethic.
An individual, usually outside government, who actively promotes a political party, philosophy, or issue he or she cares personally about.
Australian ballot
An election ballot of uniform size printed by the government and cast in secret.
According to Sidney Verba and Norman Nie, people who not only vote but like to get involved in campaign activities as well. The are better educated than the average voter, but what distinguishes them most is their interest in the conflicts of politics, their clear party identification, and their willingness to take strong positions.
According to Sidney Verba and Norman Nie, people who tend to reserve their energies for community activities of a nonpartisan kind. Their education and income are similar to those of campaigners
complete activists
According to Sidney Verba and Norman Nie, people who are highly educated, have high incomes, and tend to be middle-aged rather than young or old. These people participate in all forms of politics and account for 11 percent of the population.
Fifteenth Amendment
The constitutional amendment that guaranteed the right to vote regardless of race, color, or pervious condition of slavery.
grandfather clause
A state law allowing people to vote, even if they did not meet legal requirements, if an ancestor had voted before 1867. The clause was used as a vehicle to enable poor and illiterate whites to vote while excluding blacks (who had no ancestor voting prior to 1867). Such clauses were ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
According to Sidney Verba and Norman Nie, people who rarely vote, do not get involved in organizations, and do not even talk much about politics. They account for about 22 percent of the population.
literacy test
A state law requiring potential voters to demonstrate reading skills. The laws were frequently implemented in a discriminatory fashion to prevent otherwise qualified blacks from voting. These tests were suspended by the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
motor-voter bill
A law passed by Congress in 1993 that requires states to allow people to register to vote when applying for a driver's license and to provide registration through the mail and at some state offices that serve the disabled and provide public assistance. The law took effect in 1995.
Nineteenth Amendment
An amendment to the Constitution allowing women the right to vote.
parochial participants
According to Sidney Verba and Norman Nie, people who do not vote and stay out of election campaigns and civic associations, but who are willing to contact local officials about specific, often personal, problems.
poll tax
A state tax paid prior to voting. The tax was designed to prevent blacks from voting since poor whites were usually exempted through a grandfather clause. Poll taxes have been made illegal.
registered voters
People who are eligible to vote in an election and who have signed up with the government to vote.
Twenty-sixth Amendment
The 1971 constitutional amendment that lowered the voting age in both state and federal elections to eighteen. Congress had attempted to achieve this goal through legislation, but the Supreme Court ruled that the federal government had no authority to do so with respect to state elections.
Twenty-third Amendment
The 1961 constitutional amendment permitting residents of Washington, D.C., to vote in presidential elections.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
The federal law that suspended the use of literacy tests in elections and authorized federal examiners to order the registration of blacks in states and counties where fewer than 50 percent of the voting-age population were registered or had voted in the last presidential election.
voting-age population
The percentage of people in a country who are eligible to vote because they satisfy the minimum age requirement.
voting specialists
According to Sidney Verba and Norman Nie, people who vote but participate in little else politically. They tend not to have much schooling or income, and to be substantially older than the average person.
white primary
The exclusion of blacks from voting in the primary elections of political parties. Such primaries were employed largely in the South where the Democratic party won almost all general elections. In effect, winning the Democratic primary meant winning the election. The Supreme Court voided the use of white primaries.
caucus (nominating)
An alternative to a state primary in which party followers meet, often for many hours, to select party candidates.
congressional campaign committees
Separate committees in Congress for each political party to help members who are running for reelection or would-be members running for an open seat or challenging a candidate from the opposition party.
direct primary
A proposal originated by progressive reformers to open up political parties to their membership. It permits a vote of party members to select the party's nominee in the general election.
economic-protest parties
Parties, usually based in a particular region, especially involving farmers, that protest against depressed economic conditions. These tend to disappear as conditions improve. An example would be the Greenback party.
factional parties
Parties that are created by a split in a major party, usually over the identity and philosophy of the major party's presidential candidate. An example would be the "Bull Moose" Progressive party.
first party system
The original party structure in which political parties were loose caucuses of political notables in various locations. It was replaced around 1824.
ideological party
A political party organization that values principle above all else and spurns money incentives for members to participate.
A proposal favored by progressive reformers to curtail corruption. It allows a law to be enacted directly by vote of the people without approval of a legislative body.
mugwumps (or progressives)
One of two major factions largely within the Republican party who opposed the heavy emphasis on patronage and disliked the party machinery because it only permitted bland candidates to rise to the top, was fearful of immigrants, and wanted to see the party take unpopular stances on certain issues. They challenged the Old Guard from around 1896 to the 1930s.
national chairman
The person responsible for managing the day-to-day work of a national political party. The person is given a full-time, paid position and is elected by the national committee.
national committee
Delegates from each state and territory who manage party affairs between national conventions. These exist at the national level for both major political parties.
national party convention
The ultimate authority in both major political parties in the United States. The conventions are held every four years to nominate each party's candidate for the presidency.
Old Guard
One of two major factions largely within the Republican party, composed of the party regulars and professional politicians. They were preoccupied with building up the party machinery, developing party loyalty, and acquiring and dispensing patronage. They were challenged by progressives from around 1896 to the 1930s.
one-issue parties
Parties seeking a single policy, usually revealed by their names, and avoiding other issues. An example would be the Free Soil party.
personal following
A type of local party organization in which a candidate gets people to work for him or her for a campaign and then the organization disbands until the next election. To run this type of campaign, a candidate needs an appealing personality, a lot of friends, or a large bank account.
plurality system
An electoral system in which the winner is that person who gets the most votes, even if they do not constitute a majority of the votes.
political machine
A political party organization that recruits its members by the use of tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of leadership control over members' activities.
political party
A group that seeks to elect candidates to public office by supplying them with a label by which they are known to the electorate.
second party system
The second party structure in the nation's history that emerged when Andrew Jackson first ran for the presidency in 1824. The system was built from the bottom up as political participation became a mass phenomenon.
solidary group
A political party organization based on gregarious or game-loving instincts. It survives on the basis of a friendship network.
special-interest caucus
A group within a political party united by a concern over a specific cause. The Democratic party has attempted to assure many special-interest groups representation at its national convention, although lately the party has moved away from this commitment.
sponsored party
A political party organization created or sponsored by another organization. This form of local party organization is rare in the United States.
Elected officials and party leaders represented at the national convention of the Democratic party. Such representation was provided for by a recent party reform to ensure that an electable presidential candidate is selected.
two-party system
An electoral system with two dominant parties that compete in state or national elections. Third parties have little chance of winning.
unit rule
A requirement that all delegates representing a state at a national party convention vote with the majority of their state delegation.
winner-take-all system
An element of the electoral system used in the United States which requires that only one member of the House of Representatives can be elected from each congressional district.
A political ideology that, although changing in meaning, adheres to the following principles and practices: on economic matters, it does not favor government efforts to ensure that everyone has a job; on civil rights, does not favor strong federal action to desegregate schools and increase hiring opportunities for minorities; and on political conduct, does not favor tolerance toward protest demonstrations, legalizing marijuana, or protecting the rights of the accused.
gender gap
Differences between the political views of men and women.
John Q. Public
The average man or woman on the street, often portrayed by cartoonists as befuddled.
A political ideology that, although changing in meaning, adheres to the following principles and practices: on economic matters, it favors government efforts to ensure that everyone has a job; on civil rights, it favors strong federal action to desegregate schools and increase hiring opportunities for minorities; and on political conduct, it favors tolerance toward protest demonstrations, legalizing marijuana, and protecting the rights of the accused.
And adherent of a political ideology that is conservative on economic matters and liberal on social ones. The ideology's goal is the creation of a small, weak government.
Middle America
A phrase coined by Joseph Kraft in a 1968 newspaper column to refer to Americans who have moved out of poverty but who are not yet affluent and who cherish the traditional middle-class values.
new class
People whose advantages stem not so much from their connections with business as from the growth of government.
A standard of right and proper conduct. Elites tend to state the norms by which issues should be settled.
Identification with a political party.
political elite
A person who possesses a disproportionate share of political power.
A survey of public opinion.
An adherent of a political ideology that is liberal on economic matters and conservative on social ones. It believes the government should reduce economic inequality but regulate personal conduct.
pure conservatism
A political ideology that is conservative on both economic and personal conduct.
pure liberalism
A political ideology that is liberal on both economic and personal conduct.
random sample
A sample selected in such a way that any member of the population being surveyed (e.g., all adults or voters) has an equal chance of being selected.
religious tradition
The values associated with the major religious denominations in America: Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish. In general, Catholic families are somewhat more liberal on economic issues than white Protestant ones, while Jewish families are much more liberal on both economic and social issues than families of either Christian religion.
sampling error
The difference between the results from two different samples of the same population. This difference in answers is not significant and its likely size can be computed mathematically. In general, the bigger the sample and the bigger the differences between the percentage of people giving one answer and the percentage giving another, the smaller the error.
silent majority
A term referring to people, whatever their economic status, who uphold traditional values, especially against the counterculture of the 1960's.
Attitudinal view of representation
The theory of congressional voting behavior which assumes that member vote on the basis of their own beliefs because the array of conflicting pressures on members cancel out one another
bicameral legislature
A legislative assembly composed of two separte houses
Caucus (congressional)
An association of member of Congress created to advocate a political ideology, a consituency, or regional or econmic interests.
Chrismas tree Bill
A bill that has lots of riders
Committee of the Whole
A device used in the House of Representatives to expedite the passage of legislation
Closed Rule
Limitation imposed by the Rules Committees of House on the amount of debate time allotted to a bil and on the intro of amendments from the floor
Cloture Rules
Rule 22 of the Senate, providing for the end of debate on a bill if 3/5 of the members argee.
Concurrent resoultion
A resolution used to settle housekeeping and procedural matters that affect both houses.
Conference Resoultion
A special type of joint committee appointed to resolve differences in House and Senate versions of a piece of legislation.
A meeting place of reps and local constituecies who can initate, modify, approve, or rejcet laws.
Congressional budget office
1974- to advise Congress on the economic effects of spending programs and to provide information on the cost of proposed policies.
Congressional Reseach Service
1914- to respond to congressional requests for information. Keeps track of every major bill.
Conservative Coalition
A vote in Congress in which conservative Democrats join with Republicans
Descriptive Representation
From Pitkin to refer to hte statistical correspondence of the demographic characteristics of representatives with theose of their consituents.
Discharge Peitition
A porcedure for removing legislation form the control of a commitee and bringing it the floor for innediate consideration.
divison vote
A mehtod of voting used in both houses in which members stand and are counted
A method to keep the Senate going during a filibuster, whereby a disputed bill is temporarily shelved so that the Senate can go on with other business.
A prolonged speech or series of speeches made to deloy action on legislation in the Senate.
Franking privilage
The ability of members of Congress to mail letters to their consitituents free of charge by subsiting their facsimile signature for postage
General Accounting Office
1921- performs routine audites of the moeny spent by excutive branch. also investigates government.
Drawing congressional district lines in a bizarre or unusaul shape to make it easy for a candidate of one party to win elections in that district.
Speaking fees accepted by members of Congress
Joint committee
Committee on which both reps and senators serve.
Joint resoultion
A resoultion requiring approval of both houses and the signature of the preisdent and having the same legal status as a law.
Majority leader
The legislative leader elected by party members holding the majority of seats in the House or senate.
Majority-minority districts
Congressional districts designed to make it easier for minority citizen to elect minority representatives.
the creation of congressional districts in a stat which are of unqual size.
marginal districts
a congressional district in which the winner of the general election gets less than 55% of the vote
minority leader
the head of the minority pary in each house. choosen by the caucus of the minority party.
revisions and additions to legislation made by commitees and subcommittees.
multiple referrral
the practice of referring a bill to several committees.
Open rule
consent from the Rules Committee of the House which permits amendments from the floor on a piece of legislation
Organizational view of reprentation
The theory of congressional voting behavior which assumes htat members make voting decisions to please fellow members and obtain goodwill
An assembly of party reps which chooses a government and discusses major national issues.
Pary votes
the extent which members of a party vote together in the House and Senate.
Pork-barrel legislation
a Bill introduced by a member of Congress that gives tanible benefits, like a highway or bridge, to constituents in the hopes of winning since 1972
Preisdent pro tempore
A position created in the Constitution to serve as presiding officer of the senate in the asence of hte vis preisdent
Private bill
Legislation that pertains to a particlar indivdualm
Public bill
Legislation that pretains to affairs generally
quorum call
a calling of the roll in either house to see whether the # of reps in attendance meet the min. mumber required to conduct offical business.
Representatinal view of reprentation
The theory of congressional voting behavior that assumes the members make voting decisons based on their percetion of constituents' wishes to ensure their own reelection.
Restrictive rule
Consent from the Rules committee of the house which premits certain amentments to a piece of legislation but not others.
A nongermane amendment to an important bill.
roll-call vote
a method of voting used in both houses in which members answer yea or nay when there names are called.
Rules committee
the commitee that decides whcih bills come up for a vote, in what order, and under what restiction on length of debate and on the right to offer amendments.
selct committee
congressional committee appoined for a limted time period and purpose
17th amendment
1913- requires senators to be elected by popular vote.
simple resoultion
passed by etither house to esblish internal chamber rules
sophmore surge
an incease in the number of votes candidates recieve between the first time elected and first fist time reelected
Speaker of the House
Teh consititionally mandated presiding officer of the house.
substantive representation
a term coined by Pitkin to refer to the correspondence betwee reps opinons and those of theri consituents
teller vote
a method of voting used only in the House.
Voice vote
a method of voting used in both house in which members vote by shouting yea or nay.
a member of the pary leadership in each house who helps the party leader stay infromed about what party members are thinking, rounds up members when important votes are to be taken.

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