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Modules: 3-4 Neuroscience and Behavior (Brain)


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biological psychology
a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior. (some biological psychologist call themselves behavioral neuroscientitsts, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, phsyiological psychologists, or bio psychologists.
a nerve cell ; teh basic building block of the nervous system
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that recveibe messages and conduct impulses toward teh cell body.
the extension of a neruon, ending in beranching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or galnds.
myelin sheathe
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as teh impulse hops from one node to the enxt.
action potential
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that ravels down an axon. the action potential is generated by the movement of positvely charged atoms in and out of channels in teh axon's membrane
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
the junction between teh axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neruon. the tiny gap at this junction is called teh synaptic gap or cleft
chemical messenger that traverse teh synaptic gaps betrween nreurons. when released by the sedning neuron, neurotransmitters tracvel across teh synapse and bind to receptor sites on teh receiving neruon, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
a neurotransmitter that, among its functions, triggers msucle contraction
"morphine within" - natural, opiatelike neurotransimtters linked to apin control and to pleasure.
nervous system
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication system, consisting of all the nerve cells of teh perihpheral and central nervous systems.
central nervous system
the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
the sensory and motor neruosns that connect teh centeral nervous system to teh rest of the body
neural "cables"containing many axons. these bundled axons, which are part of the perihpheral nervous sytem, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs.
sensory neurons
neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system.
central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
motor neruons
neurons that carry outgoing information from teh central nervous system to teh muslces and glands.
somatic nervous system
teh diviion of the peripheral nervous system that controsl the bod's skeletal muscles. also called teh skeletal nervous system
autonomic nervous system
teh part of teh peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and teh msucles of teh internal organs (such as teh heart). its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
sympathetic nervous system
teh division of teh autonomic nervous system tha tarouses teh boy, mobilizing its energy in stressful situation.
parasympathetic nervous system
the divison of teh autonomic nervous system that calms teh body, conserving its energy.
a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimullus, such as teh knee jerk response.
neural networks
interconnected neural cells. with eexperience, networks can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results. computer stimulations of neural networks show analogous learning.
endocrine syustme
the body's "slow" chemical communcation system; a set of glands tha tsecrete hormones into the bloodstream
chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by teh endocrine galnds, taht are produced in one tissue an daffect another.
adrenal glands
a pari of endocrine glands just above teh kidneys. teh adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaleine, which help to arouse teh body in times of stress.
pituitary gland
the endorcine system's most influential gland. under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
tissue destruction
an amplified recording of teh waves of electrical activity that sweept across teh brain's surface. these waves are measured by electrodes placed on teh scalp.
CT (computed tomography) scan
a series of x ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by comptuer into a composite representation of a slice through teh body also called a CAT scan
PET (positron emissino tomography) scan
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while teh brain performs a given task
MRI(magnetic resonance imaging)
a technique taht sues magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images taht distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain
oldest part of teh brain
regulates breathign and heartbeat
reticular formation
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
serves as sensory switchboard
enables coordinated movemetn
limbic system
regulates emotion
influences rage and fear
contains reward centers
cerbral cortex
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers teh cerbral hemispheres; teh body's ulitimate controal dninformation processing centter
glial cells
brain cells that provide nutrients and insulating myelin
frontal lobes
the portaion of the cerbral cotex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movemtns and in making plans and judggements
parietal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cotex lying at the top of the head and toward teh rear; includes teh sensory cortex
occipital lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at teh back of teh head; includes teh visual areas, which revceive visual information from teh opposite visual field
temporal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above teh ears; includes teh auditory areas, each of twhich receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear.
motor cortex
an area at teh rear of the frontal lobes that contorls voluntary movemehnts
sensory cortex
the area at teh front of teh parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations
association areas
brain areas invovled in higher mental fucntions
language disorder
broca's areas
controls lanugage expression- an area of the frontal lobe, usually in teh left temporal lobe
the brain's capacity for modification
corpus callosum
links the cerebral hemispheres
split brain
a condition in which teh two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting teh connecting fibers) mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them.
enables muscle action, learning, adn memory
influences movement, learnign attention and emotion
affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
helps control alertness and arousal
a major inhibiotyr neurotransmitter
a major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory
amplified recording of brain waves
a technique that sues x rays to image the brain
technique that uses radio wavesr and magnetic fields to image the brain
right hemisphere
specializes in spatial relations
broca's area
contorls speech production
wernicke's area
responsible for language comprehensino
lef themisphere
specializes in rationalizing reactions
angular gyrus
translates writing into speech
object permanence, stranger anxiety
aobut 2 to 6 years
concret operational
thinking logically about oncrete events; grasping concrete analgoies and performing arithmetical operations
formal operational
about 12 through adulthood
concrete operational
about 7-11 years
infancy to 1 year
toddlerhood (1-2 years)
autonomy vs shame and doubt
preschooler (3-5)
initiative vs guilt
elementary school (6-puberty)
competence vs inferiority
adolescence (teen years into 20s)
identity vs role confusion
young adulhod (20s to early 40s)
intimacy vs isolation
middle adulhood (40s to 60s
generativity vs stagnation
late adulthood Late 60s and up)
integrity vs despair

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