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Human Development and Aging


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First Six Months of Life
a.Vestibular, proprioceptive, and visual systems become more integrated and lay the foundations for postural control, which facilitates a steady visual field.
b.Tactile and proprioceptive sysrems continue to be refined, laying down foundation for somatosensory skills.
c.Visual and tactile systems become more integrated as the child reaches out and grasps objects, laying the foundation for eye-hand coordination.
d.Infant movement patterns progress from reflexive to voluntary and goal-directed.
Six to Tweleve Months of life
a.Vestibular, visual, and somatosensory responses increase in quantity and quality as the infant becomes more mobile.
b.Tactile and proprioceptive perception become more refined, allowing for development of fine motor and motor planning skills.
c.Tactile and proprioceptive responses also lead to midline skills and eventual crossing of midline.
d.Auditory, tactile, and proprioceptive perception are heightened allowing for development of sounds for the purpose of communication.
e.Tactile proprioceptive, gustatory, and olfactory perception are integrated, allowing fro primitive self-feeding.
Thirteen to twenty-four mos
a.Tactile perception becomes more precise allowing for discrimnation and localization to further refine fine motor skills.
b.Further integration of all systems promotes complexity of motor plannig as the child expands his/her repertoire of movement to patterns
c.Symbolic gesturing and vocalization promotes ideation, indicating the ability to conceptualize.
d.Motor planning abilities contribute to self concept as the child begins to master the environment.
Two to Three years
a.this is a period of refinement as the vestibular, proprioceptive, and visual systems further devlop, leading to improved balance and postural control.
b.further development of tactile discrimination and localization lead to improved fine motor skills.
c.motor planning and praxis ideation also progress during this period
Three to seven years
a.child is driven to challenge his/her sensorimotor competencies through roughhouse play, playground activities, games, sports, music, dancing, arts and crafts, household chores, and school tasks.
Reflex: Rooting
Onset age: 28wks gestation
Integration age: 3mo
Stimulus: stroke the corner of the mouth, upper lip, and lower lip
Response: Movement of the tongue, mouth and or head toward the stimulus
Relevance: allows searching for and locating feeding source
Reflex: suck-swallow
Onset age: 28wks
Integration age: 2-5 months
Stimulus: Place examiner's index finger inside infant's mouth with head in midline
Response: Strong, rhythmical sucking
Relevance: Allows ingestion of nourishment
Reflex: traction
Onset Age: 28wks
Integration Age: 2-5mo
Stimulus: Grasp infant's forearms and pull-to-sit
Response:complete flexion of upper extremities
Relevance: Enhances momentary reflexive grasp
Moro reflex
Onset Age: 28wks
Integration Age: 4-6mo
Stimulus:Rapidly drop infant's head backward
Response: First phase:arm extension/abduction, hand opening Second phase:arm flexion and adduction
Relevance:facilitates ability to depart from dominant flexor posture: protective response
Plantar reflex
Onset Age: 28wks
Integration Age: 9mo
Stimulus:Apply pressure with thumb on the infant's ball of the foot
Response:Toe flexion
Relevance: Increases tactile input to sole of foot
Onset Age: 32wks
Integration Age: 2mo
Stimulus: Hold infant in prone suspension, gently scratch or tap alongside the spine with finger, from shoulders to buttocks
Response:lateral trunk flexion and wrinkling of the skin on the stimulated side
Relevance:Facilitates lateral trunk movements necessary for trunk stabilization.
Asymetric Tonic Neck Reflex
Onset Age: 37wks
Integration Age: 4-6mo
Stimulus:Fully rotate infant's head and hold for 5 sec
Response: extension of extremities on the face side, flexion of extremities on the skull side
Relevance: Promotes visual hand regard
Palmar Grasp
Onset Age: 37wks
Integration Age: 4-6 mo
Stimulus:Place examiner's finger in infant's palm
Response: finger flexion;reflexive grasp
Relevance: Increases tactile input on the palm of the hand
Tonic Labyrinthine-Supine
Onset Age: >37wks
Integration Age: 6mo
Stimulus:place infant in supine
Response:increased extensor tone
Relevance:facilitates total-body extensor tone
Tonic Labyrinthine-Prone
Onset Age: >37wks
Integration Age: 6mo
Stimulus:place infant in prone
Response:increased flexor tone
Relevance:facilitates total-body flexor tone

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