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Bio 220 exam 1


undefined, object
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define and give example: passive transport
movement of a substance across a membrane down its concentration gradient. facilitated diffusion is when this process is speeded up by carrier proteins. ex: v-gated Na channels
define and give example: active transport
movement of a sustance across a membrane against its gradient. ex: NA/K pumps. incles primary and secondary.
define and give example: primary transport
counter gradient movement of a substance powered by ATP hydrolysis ("pump"). example: Na pumps
define and give example: secondary transport
counter-gradient movement of a substance powered by simulatenous movement of another substance down its gradient. includes symporters and exhangers
define and give example: symporter (cotransporter)
when the two substances are both moving through the membrane in the same direction but one is downhill and powers the uphill one. example: Na+/glucose symporter in kidney sells
define and give example:exhanger
when the two substances are moving through the membrane in opposite directions and one is downhill and powers the uphill one. EX:Na+/H+ exchanger in eggs.
define and give example: tetany vs. twitch
twicth is force generated by the firing of 1 AP, tetany is the maximum force generated by a high frequency of APs
define and give example: motor unit
a motor neuron and all muscle cells its connected to
define and give example:recruitment
adding of motor units by the brain to increase force
define and give example: osmotic pressure
pressure creadet by osmosis between two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane
what substances can move through a cell membrane by simple diffusion?
H2O, gases, lipids
C&C: spatial and temporal summation
Temporal summation involves action potentials arriving at the terminus of one presynaptic axon at close intervals so that each succeeding postsynaptic EPSP builds on the previous ones. In this way, the postsynaptic, electrotonic depolarizations accumulate to form a grand EPSP that results in a new frequency of action potentials in the axon of the postsynaptic neuron.

Counterpoint to temporal summation, in spatial summation, the information input (action potential frequency) in a number of presynaptic neurons arrives sufficiently close together to release enough neurotransmitter chemical to accumulate and depolarize a sufficient area of the postsynaptic membrane to attain a grand EPSP and generate a new frequency of action potentials in the postsynaptic axon.
C&C: AP vs EPP
EPP only happens at nmj
C&C: EPSP vs IPSP and give an example of a NT that causes each
EPSP excites through depoarizing (Ach) IPSP inhibits by hyperpolarizing (GABA)
C&C graded potential and all or none
all or none - action potential or EPP. graded -epsps, ipsps
forumla for osmolarity?
molarity * number of particles it dissociates into
whats ECC, ICC, SR concentration, of Ca2+
small, very low, very high
whats ECC, ICC of Na+
150, 15
whats ECC, ICC of K+
5(15), 150
whats ECC, ICC of Cl-
110, low
how does hypertrophy of muscle cells happen
more contractile proteins are produced and added to existing myofibrils

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