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Psychobio Test 2


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Branches of Neuroscience
(~400 BCE) wrote about the brain and emotions and everything come from it
shared ideas with Hippocrates
(~320 BCE)said the heart and other internal organs were the seat of wisdom and intellect
(~55 BCE) The heart "is the seat of the intellect and mind"
(150 CE) demonstrated experimentally (using live dissection) that the brain was the center of control for physical and mental activity
Medieval scholars
intellect and emotions in various organs
16th and 17th centuries
Thomas Willis
(1621-1675)argued that the brain receives sensations, stores memories, and is the source of behavior
Renee Decartes
(1640s)pineal body was the seat of the soul; thought behavior-->hydraulic fluids initiated by the soul; brain and body distinct split biology and philosophy
Luigi Galvani
1780s; electrical stsitmulation of a nerve caused contraction of the muscle to which it was attached; dispelled descartes "hydraulic hypothesis"; static electricity and frog lets
1881; phrenology-diffrenet parts of the brain have diff. functions; skull is molded on the brain; right about functional specialization; wrong about phrenology
1828; Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies: a nerve that is activated carries only a single type of inoformation (ex. eyes pressed on-flashes of light)
von Helmholtz, Hermann
1840s; "founder of physiological psychology"; neural impulses didn't travel at light speed; actually 50 m/s
Fritsch & Hitizig
1888; electrical stimulation of the brain caused movement of the body
Physiological psychology
roots in physics, bio, and philosophy
Broca, Paul
ablation of human brain by studying stroke victims; a portion of the crerebral cortex of the left side of the brain functions necessary for speech; sppech not localized in 1 place
Cells of the Nervous system
Nerions & Glia
"Principal" Neuron
sends signals-excitable
inhibatory; modulate activity of principle
provide a support network for neurons
divisions of the nervous system
CNS & PNS (somatic-voluntary & autnomic-involuntary-->sympathetic and parasympathetic)
cell body
carries electrical signals from the soma to boutons
The Neuron Doctrine
Camillo Golgi vs. Santiago Ramon y Cajal;
*neurons are unitary and communicate w/ each other across a synapse
**signals travel in one direction: from the dendrites to the soma and from the soma to the axon terminals
Camillo Golgi
developed Golgi method-->staining nervous tissue to examine individual nerve cells
Ramon y Cajal
said that chemical signals were received on dendrites-CORRECT
primary target for input from other neurons
action potential
the electical signal; converted to a chemical signal at the terminal boutons
Multipolar dendrite
lots of dendrites
dendrites at one end, soma, then axon
Unipolar cells
touch, taste, sensitive neurons; only on process coming out of the cell body
3 types of Nueroglia
astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes/schwann cells
contact blood vessels, some contact nuerons
-hold neurons in palce
-control enviornment surrounding neurons
-provide nourishment for neurons
-immune system component w/in the brain-swelling
-smallest glia
wrap multiple axons
-found in CNS
Schwann cells
-wrap only a single axon
-found in PNS
increases speed of communication
-saltatory conduction
-not all are myelinated
-destroyed in MS
Blood Brain Barrier
leaky blood bessels-->capillaries in brain less leaky
-astrocytic "end feet" and tight junctions-brain capillary endothelial cell
Electric charge of neurons
more negative inside than out
Membrane potential
the charge differential across the membrane; potential to do work by moving charge across the membrane; resting membrane potential
Ions found in intra and extra cellular fluid
K+, Na+, Cl-, A- (anions only intracellular)
detects iddd. in voltage in cell compared to outside of it; use an electrode (glass)
Concentration Gradient
ions at a high concentration are under diffusion pressure to distribut evenly thoruhgout
Electrostatic Gradient
ions of a particular valence are attracted to areas of the opposite valence
more inside than out
more outside than in
more outside than in
the concentration gradient and teh electrostic gradient for a particular ion species are at equal strength and are pushing on opposite sides of the membrane
Equilibrium potential
the difference in electical potenetial b/e the in out out of the nurons-membrane voltage
Nerst Equation
for any given ion you can figure our the voltage
Resting Membrane Potential
produced by membrane inpermeability to A- and Na+; controlled by K+
Ways ions get in and out
-"Gated" ion channels
-Ionic "pumps"
-Ion-specific "leak" channels
Na+/K+ pump
3 Na out for every 2 K i; works against the concentration gradient and USES ENERGY/ATP
Leak channel
Na+/K+ pumps
record changes of membrane potential over time
ion channel
specialized protein-> allows ions to enter/leave cell
voltage-dependent ion channel
open and close according to value
All or none Law
once potenetial is triggered it is propagated w/o decrement to terminal buttons
Passive Current flow in the axon
is a current flow-like translatlantic cables
Subthreshold Stimulation
stimulation that doesn't lead to an action potenetial-"graded potenetial"-because it isn't strong enoguh
Supratheshold Stimulation
leads to an action potenntial-large depolarization of the membrane potential; is an ACTIVE process-incolves voltage gated ion channels
Voltage Clamp Method
meausres current across membrane at diff. voltages; passes current until membrane potenetial is what you want
Hodgikin and HUxley
Nobel prize b/c proposed existence of voltage gated ion channels
block outward current of K+
block inward current of Na+
K+ channel
built in delay
what happens during the action potential?
-Na channels open and it enters cell-K+ channels open and it leaves cell
-Na channels become blocked
-K channels open and is driven out of the cell
-CMP returns to normal, and Na channels reset
-Membrane overshoots resting potential and returns to normal b/c of Na/K transporters
Propagation of the action potential
Active process but depends on passive spread of electrical potential
Nodes of Ranvier
only site on meylinated axons w/ channels; faster
Saltatory Conduction
myelinated neurons; its jumps from node to node
2 types of synapses junctions
-electric synapse
-chemcial synapse
Electric Synapse
gap junction channels; rare;
connexons-6 to form a gap junction
Chemical synapse
vesicles full of NTs released into cleft
3 types of synapses
-axoaxonic (rare)
1900s debate
soups vs. sparks
Loewi, Otto
discovery of 1st chemical synapse; aceylocholine; vagus nerve of heart; nobel prize 1936
Criteria for a Neurotransmitter
present in presynaptic terminal
-released in response to presynaptic depolarization
-Ca2+ dependent
-specific receptors presnet on postsynaptic cell
Classes of Neurotransmitters
Excitatory-increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neruon will fire (glutamate); produces a depolarizing potential
-Inhibatory-decrease likelyhood; GABA; hyperpolarize
skeletal and muscaular and cardiac
abundant in CNS; almost always excitatory
the most abundant inhibitory (always); open postsynaptic ion channels that allow Cl- in or K+ out
What happens at the chemical synapse
-NT produced/packaged
-vesicle docked
-action potential arrives
-voltage gated Ca2+ channels open
-vesicles fuse w/ membrane
-bind w/ postsyn. receptors
-ion flow changes postsynaptic potential
Excitatory post synaptic potential; Na+ in; depolarization
K out or Cl in; hyperpolarization or cancels effect of EPSPs, respectively
Biogenic amines
psychiatric disorders; serotonic and histamine
Parkinson's Disease
loss of dopaminergic cells; motor disabilities; lose posture, coordination, and balance; treatment L-dopa
axon hillock
where action potential is triggered
temporal summation
a single input fires rapidly, raising the postsynaptic potential above threshold
Spatial summation
many inputs fire simultaneously (or nearly so); at one time, but strong
2 mechanisms of turning off a NT
reuptake and deactivating enzymes
Ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors
an ion channel; ligand gated ion channel
recepter separate protein-G protein; opening of an ion channel is a 2ndary effect
2 major receptors for acetylcholine(ACh)
Nicotinic and Muscarinic
ACh inactivated by
AChE--->Acetate + Choline; the choline is taken up into presynaptic cell to make more acetylcholine
4 major receptors for Glutamate
-AMPA, Kainate, NMDA-ionotropic and excitatory
-mGluR-metabotropic; excitatory or inhibitory
GABA receptors
-GABAa,b, and c
Dopamine (DA)receptors
D1 and D2
1-postsynaptic, metabotropic
2-autoreceptor, metabotropic
NT receptors activated by NT released from pesynaptic neuron
-decrease te amount of NT released by presynaptic cell-decreases Ca influx
-is a mechanism of NT regulation
axoaxonic synapses
DONT contribute to neural integration; modulate release of NT from presynatpic terminal;
Presynaptic faciliation
incrase release of NT
Presynaptic inhibition
decrease NT release
released by neurons; larger quantitiies than NTs; diffuse over bigger distances; localized area of brain; effects widespraed-vigilance, sensitivity to pain
released by glands or specialized cells in organs; carried through bloodstream; slower effects than NT; long lasting behavioral effects; ex. testosterone-aggresiveness
una persona que es astuta y hábil
lugar donde guarda la comida
con precaución
parte superior de una montaña
lugar donde pasan cosas sobrenaturales
extraño o poco común
subir a un lugar alto
pedazos de un objecto
exhausting, overwhelming
calvo, baldness
to give in
con mucho agua
en la carcél
to shine
to undermine
el, la calvera
womanizer, skull
el, la canal
canal, gutter
el, la capital
capital money, capital city
el, la cólera
cholera, anger
el, la coma
coma, comma
el, la cometa
comet, kite
el, la corneta
bugler, bugle
el, la corte
cut, court
el, la cura
priest, cure
el, la editorial
editorial, publishing house
el, la frente
gront of building or military, forehead
el, la gallina
coward, hen
el, la guardia
guardsman, guard
el, la guía
guide man, guide book
el, la mañana
tomorrow, morning
el, la orden
order, order command
el, la parte
dispatch, message
el, la pendiente
earring, slope
el, la policiía
policeman, police force
el, la vocal
male member of a board, vowel

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