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Psychology-Bio Ch. 2


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cells that form the myelin sheath; insulate and support neurons by holding them together, removing waste product, and prevent harmful substances from passing through the bloodstream into the brain
glial cells
the condition of a neuron when the inside is negatively charged relative to the outside/ vice versa
polarization/ depolarization
electrical charge across a neuron membrane due to excess positive ions concentrated an outside and excess negative ions on the inside
resting potential
the firing of a nerve cell
action potential
a shift in the eletrical charge in a tiny area of a neuron
graded potential
the level an impulse must exceed to cause a neuron to fire
treshold of excitation
a period after firing when the neuron is returning to its normal polarized state and will fire only when it reaches the treshold of excitation
relative refractory period
a period after firing when a neuron will not fire again no matter how strong imcoming messages may be
absolute refractory period
tiny sacs in a terminal button that release chemicals into synapse
synaptic vesicles
locations on the receptor neuron in which specific neurotransmittersd fits like a key in a lock
receptor sites
the ability of the brain to change in response to experience
relays and translates incoming messages from sense receptors(except smell); regulate the activity of brain centers in the cortex
directly controls emotional behavior, stress, coordinating activity of the nervous system
handles motor skills, reflexes, movement, and a sense of equillibrium
controls sleep patterns, connects spinal cord to midbrain, and arousal
attached to spinal cord, controls unconscious systems: breathing circulation, muscle tone, and heart rate
controls smooth actions in regards to Parkinson's disease; hearing and sight; pain
part of the cerrebral cortex that is responsible for voluntary movement; attention, goal-directed behavior and appropriate emotional behavior
frontal lobe
part of the cerebral cortex that receives sensory info from throughout the body
parietal lobe
part of the cerebral hemisphere that recieves and interprets visual info
occiptal lobe
part of the cerebral hemisphere that helps regulate hearing, balance and equillibrium and certain emotions and motivations
temporal lobe
a thick band of nerve fibers that connect the right and left hemispheres of the brain
corpus callosum
specializes in verbal tasks: logic, rationale, and analysis
left hemisphere
specializes in visual/spatial tasks: face recognition, perception and expression of emotion
right hemisphere
a net like bundle of neurons running thru the brain; sends alert messages; arouse higher parts of the brain
reticular formation
ring of structures that play a role in learning and emotional behavior includes: amygdala and hippocampus that form new memories
limbic system
used to study a single neuron; to understand the dyanmics of action potential, effects of drugs and processes that occur
microelectrode techniques
used to study the activity of millions of neurons; provide size and rhythm of neural activity
macroelectrode techniques
used to study structural images: creates 3D picture without surgery
used to create more precise pictures of a brain; where brain is exposed to radiowaves and hydrogen atoms in the brain release energy
tool where electrodes are placed on the scalp; electrodes record brain activity, then converted to color images, the images how distribution of wave activity
measure the strength of the magnetic field; used to determine which parts do the most work, where electric signals are not affected by bone
uses radioactive energy to map brain activity
branch of the autonomic nervous system; it prepares the body for quick action in a emergency
sympathetic division
branch of the autonomic nervous system; it calms and relaxes the body
parasympathetic division
short fiber that branch out from the cell body and pick up incoming messages
cell body
single long fiber extending from cell body; it carries outgoing messages
white fatty tissue covering found in some axons
myelin sheath
electrically charged particles found both inside and outside the neuron
principle that the action potential in a neuron does not vary in strength; the neuron either fires at full strength or not at all
all or none law
chemicals released by the synaptic space and affect adjacent neurons
division of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord
the central nervous system
the outer surface of the two cerebral hemispheres that regulate most complex behavior
cerebral cortex
a complex cable of axons that connect the brain to the rest of the body; permits some reflex movements and carry messages to and from the brain
spinal cord
the part of the peripheral nervous system that carries messages from the senses to the central nervous system and between the central nervous system and the skeletal muscles
somatic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that carries messages between the central nervous system and the internal organs
autonomic nervous system
glands of the endocrine system that release hormones into the bloodstrean
endocrine glands
endocrine gland located below the voice box; it produces the hormone thyroxin
thyroid gland
4 tiny glands embedded in the thyroid; secretes parathormone
parathyroid gland
a gland located in the center of the brain that appears to regulate activity levels over a course of a day
pineal gland
organ between the stomach and small intestine; secretes insulin and glucagon to regulate blood sugar levels
gland located on the underside of the brain and produces the most hormones
pituitary gland
the reproductive glands(testes and ovaries)
the gonads
two endocrine glands located above the kidneys
the adrenal glands

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