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Psychology 120 The Nervous System


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What is the interdisciplinary field studying how biological processes relate to behavioral and mental processes?
What is the cell of the nervous system responsible for receiving and transmitting electrochemical information?
What cells provide structural, nutritional, and other support for the neurons, as well as communication within the nervous system?
Glial cells
What are branching neuron structures that receive neural impulses from other neurons and convey impulses toward the cell body?
What part of the neuron contains the cell nucleus, as well as other structures that help the neuron carry out its functions?
Cell body or soma
What is a long, tubelike structure that conveys impulses away from the neuron’s cell body toward other neurons or to muscles or glands?
What is a layer of fatty insulation wrapped around the axon of some neurons, which increases the rate at which nerve impulses travel along the axon?
Myelin sheath
What transmits impulses to dendrites of another neuron by neurotransmitters?
Axon terminals
What is a neural impulse that carries information along the axon of a neuron?
Action potential
What is a junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron?
What are chemicals released by neurons that affect other neurons?
What is a collection of glands located throughout the body that manufacture and secrete hormones into the bloodstream?
Endocrine system
What is an innate, automatic response to a stimulus?
What subdivision of the peripheral nervous system connects to sensory receptors and controls skeletal muscles?
Somatic nervous system
What neurons transmit messages from sense organs to the CNS?
Sensory neurons or afferent neurons
What neurons within the CNS communicate internally and intervene between the sensory and motor neurons?
What neurons transmit messages from the CNS to organs, muscles, and glands?
Motor Neurons or Efferent Neurons
What subdivision of the peripheral nervous system controls involuntary functions, such as heart rate and digestion?
Autonomic nervous system
What subdivision of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for arousing the body and mobilizing its energy during times of stress?
Sympathetic Nervous System or fight-or-flight system
What subdivision of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for calming the body and conserving energy?
Parasympathetic nervous system

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