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Neuro exam 1


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Describe brain laterailty in terms of organization
-bilateral anatomical symmetry: 2 hemispheres essentially same shape
-unilateral functional differences: left for language, right for emotions/music etc
-contralateral sensorimotor control: left controls rt movement, vice versa
Describe structural and functional organization in the brain
-sensory and motor systems have specialized nerve cells for their own sensations
Describe topographical organizaion in the brain
-precentral gyrus: motor
-postcentrl gyrus: sensory
-auditory and visual cortices
-subcortical: interal capsule, BG, thalamus
Describe these brain sections:
c--vertical slice, separates anterior and posterior
s--vertical slice, seperates right and left (midsag, exact middle)
h-horizontal slice, seperates top and bottom
From BODY perspective, describe:
caud-toward the head
rost-toward the tailbone
ant/vent-toward font of bodu
post/dors-toward back
From the CEREBRAL perspective, describe:
caud/post--back of brain/head
rost/ant--front of head
dorsal--top of brain
ventral--botton of brain
From the BRAINSTEM perspective, describe:
caud--coccygeal end of spinal cord
rost-toward brain
dors-back of BS/SC
vent-toward front of body
Main structures in the CNS
Brain: cerebrum, brainstem (midbrain, pons, medulla), cerebellum

Spinal cord
Main structures in the PNS
motor and sensory nerves
Name the 6 layers of the cerebral cortex
1. molecular (interconnections)
2. external granular (cortex)
3. external pyramidal (cortex)
4. internal granular (thal. & subcort.)
5. internal pyramidal (Betz cells, motor cortex, BS, cerebellum, SC)
6. multiform (thalamus)
Name the primary vessicles, and what they mature into (brain divisions)
1. Prosencephelon--> Telencephalon, Diencephalon
2. Mesencephalon--> Mesencephalon
3. Rhombencephalon--> Metencephalon, Myelencephalon
Gross anatomical structures that arise from...
tele: cerebrum, limbic lobe, BG
dien: thalamus, hypothal.
mesen: midbrain structures
mete: cerebellum, pons
myel: medula oblongtata
Describe embryonic development during 3rd week gestation
-neuro structures laid down
-neuroectodermal layer--> CNS & PNS
-neural tube--> BS & SC
-neural crest--> sensory ganglia, autonomic nerves
What are the major lobes of the brain?
Frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
what are the functions of the...

...precentral gyrus

...postcentral gyrus
pre: motor homunculus

post: sensory homunculus
Name the classification of neurons
-unipolar (T-shaped, only one process)
-bipolar (peripheral process and central process)
-multipolar (many dendrites, one axon)
-golgi type I (LONG axon)
-golgi type II (short axon)
Describe locations of...
...Golgi I
...Golgi II
Uni: posterior root ganglia, cranial nerves, CNS & PNS connections
Bi: retina, sensory cochlear, vestibular ganglion
Multi: CNS nerve tracts, PNS
What is myelin? What cells produce it in the CNS and PNS?
-fatty sheath insulating nerve for better impulse conduction
-CNS: oligodendroglia cells
-PNS: Schwann cells
Factors influencing neural regeneration in CNS and PNS
CNS: poor, can't cross scars, may be influenced by growth hormones

PNS: good, 3-4 days, endoneurial membrane and neurilemma help sprout protien
--Schwann cells
ast: CNS, grey/white matter; form lining around ext. surface of brain & blood vessels
--olig: CNS, produce myelin
--micro: CNS, engulf debris
--epend: Ventricular Cavity; lining of ventricular surface
--Schwann: PNS; produce myelin
Describe major componants of a single neuron
-cell body (soma)
-dendrites (receptors, transmit toward cell body)
-axons (effector, transmit away from cell body)

...Excitatory Impulses (EPSPs)

...Inhibitory Impulses (IPSPs)
E: lowers post-synaptic membrane potential

I: Makes post-synaptic membrane hyperpolarized (inside more negative)
Describe the function and location of acetylcholine, as well as pathologies resulting from a breakdown
-reticular formation, forbrain, cortex
-controls circadian cycles, excitation/inhibition, stereotypical movements
-MG, Alzheimers, myasthenia gravis can result if not enough
Describe the function and location of Dopamine, as well as pathologies resulting from a breakdown
-cortex, midbrain (substantia nigra)
-controls voluntary movement
-Parkinson's disease can result if not enough
Describe the function and location of Norepinephrine, as well as pathologies resulting from a breakdown
-pons, medulla, limbic, thalamus, cortex
-conrols sleep, sustained memroy and vigilance
Describe the function and location of Serotonin, as well as pathologies resulting from a breakdown
-GI tract, blood, BS, subcortical and cortical
-controls arousal, sleep, pain control
-depression can result from low levels
Describe the function and location of GABA, as well as pathologies resulting from a breakdown
-CNS (inhibitory)
-Huntinton's chorea can result from low levels
Describe the function and location of Glutamate, as well as pathologies resulting from a breakdown1
-major excitatory
-creates links between neurons for learning and long term memory
Describe the function and location of Noradrenaline, as well as pathologies resulting from a breakdown
-induces physical and mental arousal, elevated mood
-produced in locus coreuleus
Describe the meninges, what is in the space between them, and how they are layered
-covers CNS from top of brain to tip of spinal cord
-between the two inner "diapers" is cerebrospinal fluid
-3 layers
Where is the efferent system in the cortex, and what comprises the tracts?
-direct activation pathways: pyramidal system (coticobulbar and cortico spinal tracts)
-indirect activation pathway: extrapyramidal system
-final common pathway (FCP): LMN system, cranaial and spinal nerves go to striated muscle
Where is the afferent system and what comprises the system tracts?
-post-central gyrus
-dorsal column-medial lemniscal system
-antero-lateral system
Decribe what these conditions are any why they result:
--cranium bifidum
--spina bifida
an: missing cerebral hemispheres (defect of neural tube inutero)
CB: protrusion of brain & SC (inc. fusion of rostral neural tube)
SB: post. vertebral arches don't fuse, post. skin epithelialized (caudal neural tube doen'st fuse)
hyd: enlarged cerebral ventricles, too much CSF
micro: small brain, MR (environment, genes, radiation)
Describe functions of...
...nissl substance
...golgi apparatus
nissl: protien synthesis
golgi: cell membrane production
mito: chemical energy
neurofib: cell transport, cytoskeleton makeup
mirco: cell transport, motor movement
lyso: cleaning waste
centr: cell division
lipo: metabolic by-product
mel: formation of dopa
Describe what happens in a synapse
-presynaptic cell transmits neurotransmitter via terminal bouton to synaptic cleft
-postsynaptic cell receives it and generated impulse
...absolute refactory period
hyp: period after impulse where potential < -70mV
dep: impulse becomes less negative as Na+ added
rep: impulse becomes more negative as K+ added
pol: at -70mV
ARP: period during hyperpolarization
Describe the process of nerve excitability
1. stimuli to nerves
2. Na+ depolarizes cell
3. action potential elicited
4. K+ repolarizes cell
5. cell becomes hyperpolarized briefly
6. cell returns to resting potential
Describe how Na+ and K+ influence nerve conduction
Na+: rush into cell to depolarize it before action potential

K+: rush into cell to repolarize after action potential
What are...

...epicritic senses

...protopathic senses
e: discriminate slight differences in senses

p: sensing pain/pressure/temperature in non-localized fashion
Describe the following kinds of neurological breakdowns:
n: slow presenation
v: of the blood vessels
d: progressively worsening
m: movement disorder
b: caused by bacteria
Functions of the cerebral hemisphere
-mental functions, multimodal processing, initiate motor acts, language/vision/hearing, organization/planning, memory, executive functions
Functions of the Limbic Lobe
emotional behavior, body regulation, survival functions

-driven by hormones
Functions of the Basal Ganglia
-motoric precisions, initiation of movement dynamics/force/speed, templates for redundant verbal/motor acts, new verbal/motor training

-CSF by lateral ventricles
Functions of the Thalamus
sensory/motor gateway, 30+ nuclei fused together (independant of brain), interconnection b/w cortex and subcortical
Functions of the Hypothalamus
hormone secretion (regulates behavior), ANS functions, fight/sex/thirst/body temp

-3rd ventricle gives CSF
Functions of the midbrain
-made of tegmentum, red nucleus, substantia nigra, reticular formation, cranial nuclei
-funnels/monitors CNS/PNS sentory and motor input/output

-cerebral aqueduct gives CSF
Functions of the Pons
sensory and motor pathways, cranial nerve nuclei
Functions of the Cerebellum
control circuit, feedback used to regulate body

info from SC->BS->cortex (and back)

-4th ventricle gives CSF
Functions of the Medulla
pyramidal tracts and ascending sensory tracts, major point of decussation, cranial nerve nuclei
(no ventricles)
In general, where are the sig. structures for s/l/h in each major lobe?
-Brocca's area: Left Frontal lobe
-Wernicke's: Left Temporal
-Heschels gyrus: Left upper temporal lobe (near frontal)
-supramarginal/angular gyri: parietal lobe
Name major tracts that connect neuronal areas and cerebral cortex
-association fibres: superior longitudinal fassiculus, cinglulum, superior occipito-frontal fassiculus, inferior long.fassic, uncinate fasic.
-commisural fibres: corpus collosum
-projection fibres: corona radiata (decending motor tract of pyr. syst.)
Describe the connection of the corpus collosum
connexts L&R hemispheres via assiciation areas, NOT the primary sensory, motor, auditory or visual centers
Describe the tracts of the internal capsule
Anterior limb: anterior thalamic radiation, corticopontine
Genu: coticobulbar, coticoreticular
Posterior limb: corticospinal, frontopontine, superior thalamic, corticotectal, corticorubral, corticoreticular
what are the major cortical sulci?
-central sulcus
-lateral fissure
Structures of the parietal lobe
-post-central gyrus/sensory cortex
-superior and inferior parietal lobules
-supramarginal and angular gyri
structures of the frontal lobe
-primary motor cortex
-premotor cortex
-prefrontal cortex
Major structures of the occipital lobe
visual cortex
major structures of the temporal lobe
-angular gyrus
-Heschel's gyrus
-Wenicke's area
where does the Corona Radiata merge?
-subcortially near BG/Thal. region, thru internal capsule
Characteristics of an axon
-aka nerve fiber
-efferent (motor), transmit AWAY from body
-extend long distances
-collaterals (extensions)
-terminal boutons release neurotransmitters
Characteristics of a dendrite
-afferent (receptive)
-transmit TOWARD cell body
-short with branches
Brain injury effects
-axonal retrograde: injury of axon
-Wallerian degeneration: axon cut, inflames, degenerates, atrophies
-Chromatolysis: degeneration, discoloration
-neuroglial response: increase of # of nerve cells and cell size
Lesion classification by levels
-supratentorial: brain
-posterior fossa: cerebellum, BS, medula
-spinal: below medulla
-peripheral: final common path of nerve
Supratentorial level
-derivitives of telen/diencephalons
-cerebral hemispheres, BG, thal., hypthal, cranial nerves I & II
Posterior fossa level
-structures b/w tentorium cerebelli and foramen magnum
-midbrain, pons, medulla, cerell., cran. nerves III->XII
Spinal level
-below foramen magnum, in vertebral column
-dorsal root ganglia (sensory), ventral root ganglia (motor)
peripheral level
-cranial/peripheral nerves
-ANS & ganglia, striated muscles
Efferent Tract:
-from motor cortex-->OUT
-motor homunculus, internal capsule, BS, SC

(H, IC, BS, SC)
Afferent Tract
-from periphery-->IN!
-dosal spinal ganglia, contralateral parietal lobes, sensory homunculus

(DSG, P, H)

1. Dorsal
2. Rostral, anterior
3. Ventral
4. Caudal, posterior
5. Dorsal

1. molecular
2. external granular
3. external pyramidal
4. internal granular
5. internal pyramidal / Betz cells
6. multiform

1. dendrites
2. cell body
3. axon
4. nodes of ranvier
5. myelin sheath
6. terminal boutons

1. neurons
2. oligodendrocyte
3. axon
4. microclian cell
5. ependymal cell
6. astrocyte
7. capillary
Describe the following terms and if they're CNS or PNS
nuc: mass of neurons (CNS)
trac: bundle of parallel axons a/common origin and termination (CNS)
fas: several // running tracts (CNS)
gang: collection of neurons (PNS)
nerve: bundle of axons (PNS) (optic nerve=CNS)
Describe the 6 layers of gray matter
-ext. granular
-ext. pyramidal
-int. granular
-int. pyramidal
I-terminal denrdites and axons from cortex form interconnections
II-small granular interneurons recieve input from cerebrum
III-small pyramidal neurons with projections to other cereb. regions
IV-small granular interneurons receive input from thal. and other subcort. nuclei
V-Lg pyramidal cells (Betz cells) axons project to BS, cebell., and SC
VI-fusifrom neurons with projections to thalamus
Important Brodmann areas:
-primary sensory cortex
-primary motor cortex
-primary visual cortex
-prim. auditory cortex
-2ndary association cortex
-Supramarginal gyrus
-angular gyrus
-1, 2, 3 (post central gyrus)
-4 (precentral gyrus)
-17 (med. occipital lobe)
-41, 42 (Heschl's gyrus)
-5, 7 (superior parietal lobule)
-22 (superior temporal gyrus)
-44 (lower 3rd frontal convulution

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