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Neuro - Lab 1: Brain Overview


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The cingulate gyrus is involved in what 3 things? Where is it located?
1. Emotion and motivation
2. Addictive behaviors
3. Emotional response to pain
*anterior and superior to the anterior corpus callosum
The Foramen of Monroe separates what two areas?
The lateral ventricles and the third ventricle.
The thalamus processes sensory input except for information regarding one sense - what is it? What else is this area involved in?
*it does not process olfactory input
*linked to cerebellum for regulation of motor control
What is the anterior commissure? Where is it located?
*A bundle of axons that interconnects regions of the temporal lobe
*anterior to the thalamus
Where is Broca's area located?
At the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe; in the left hemisphere in 98% of people.
Where is the primary somatosensory cortex located?
At the postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe
Why is white matter colored white?
It is composed largely of axons which are surrounded by fatty myelin sheaths.
Where is Wernicke's area? What does it do?
The superior temporal gyrus, in the left hemisphere in 98% of the population. It is involved in langauge.
What is the function of the insula?
Visceral and autonomic function, including taste and pain.
What are the opercula?
Overhanging pieces of cortex from the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes which cover the insula.
What is the uncus? What is a potentially life-threatening complication involving this structure?
*the medial protrusion of the parahippocampal gyrus which overlies the amygdala
*it is likely to herniate when IC pressure is increased and press on the midbrain
List two functions of the cerebellum.
1. Motor coordination
2. Non-declarative learning
With what are the superior and inferior colliculi involved? Where are they located?
*Superior colliculi - vision
*Inferior colliculi - audition
*on the midbrain tectum
Where is the lingula? What is represented here?
*It is the region of the occipital lobe just inferior to the calcarine sulcus
*the contralateral upper visual field
Where is the cuneus? What is represented here?
*the region of the occipital lobe just superior to the calcarine sulcus
*the lower contralateral visual field
What are the four regions of the corpus callosum?
1. Rostrum - front part
2. Genu
3. Body
4. Splenium - caudal part
What region of the body is represented by the paracentral lobule? Where is this structure?
*the legs
*the medial surface of the pre- and postcentral gyri
What is the fornix? Where does it run?
*a system of axons
*from the hippocampus forward and medially backward to the mammillary bodies
What does CN III do?
The occulomotor nerve provides motor innervation to all of the extraocular muscles except the lateral rectus and superior oblique.
For what function are Layers II and IV of the cerebral cortex specialized?
Reception of sensory information.
What does it mean that the primary sensory and motor cortex are laid out with somatropic organization?
They are laid out in an orderly fashion such that spatial relationships are maintained.
A lesion to the precentral gyrus close to the lateral fissure would have what effects?
Motor impairment of the face and tongue.
Spinal sensory nerves synapse in the dorsal root ganglia.
Though the cell bodies of these nerves are located here, there are no synaptic connections.
Describe the shape of cross sections taken from the cervical versus thoracic regions of the spinal cord.
*cervical sections are more oval
*thoracic sections are more round
In which sections of the spinal cord is the lateral horn present?
What kind of cells make up the intermediolateral cell column? What implications does this have?
*Sympathetic preganglionic neurons
*all sympathetic outflow generated in the brain must travel down to the thoracic spinal cord
Name 4 specific deficits that can be caused by damage to the cerebellum.
1. Intention tremor
2. Poor coordination
3. Nystagmus
4. Disrupted equilibrium
What happens to cell bodies of neurons whose axons have been cut?
They become swollen, chromatolysis occurs, RER degenrates, and nucleus becomes eccentrically located.
What happens to the distal portion of an axon that has been severed?
The severed axons and terminals degenerate and are able to take a reduced silver stain.
Where is the cortical center for somatosensation?
Postcentral gyrus
Where is the cortical center for vision?
Banks of calcarine sulcus.
Where is the cortical center for audition?
Transverse temporal gyri
Where is the cortical center for olfaction?
Uncus and anterior temporal lobe
Where is the cortical center for gustation?
The insula and vicinity.
Where is the somatic motor cortex?
Precentral gyrus
Where are the cortical centers for speech and language?
Broca's and Wernicke's areas on the left side.
What are two recognizable features of the pons viewed in cross section?
*rostral sections show laminated striations
*caudal sections show clumping

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