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Bio 363- 1


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copy deck
The primary Pit Field Wall is made up of what?
Plasmodesmata Cluster
Where does the "pit pairs" from at?
The Primary Pit Field
What is the Secondary Wall conduct between adjacent cells?
Pit Pair
-An intercellular community - arise over the primary pit field
Pit Pair
What is the cells living content?
What is the first component of the protoplast?
Cell Membrane
-Outer protoplast boundary -mediates transport into and out of the cell
Cell Membrane
Composition of _________: - Phospholipids and Proteins -Fluid mosaic model
Cell membrane of the protoplasts
What is the second component of the protoplast? (Beyond the cell membrane)
Class definition of Living Organism -
Entity with functional nucleic acids
Mutation -
DNA structural change
3 Types of Gene Point Mutations -
Insertion, Deletion, and Substitution
Study of bacteria and viruses
Study of fungi and molds
Study of animals and protozoans
Study of plants and algae
Studies of extinct living plants
Studies of extant living plants
Study of algae
Study of mosses
Study of ferns
Study of seed plants
Study of plant biochemistry
Study of plant cells
Study of plant tissues
Study of plant internal structure
Study of plant external structure
Composition of ______: - fluid matrix - cytoplasmic streaming
Cytosol of the protoplast
This means "cytoplasmic streaming."
Third composition of the protoplasts
Specialized entities within cytosol in the protoplasts
There are 3 types of organelles. Name them.
1. Double membrane Bound Organelles 2. Single Membrane Bound Organelles 3. Non-membrane bound organelles
Name the Double membrane bound organelle that is only found in plants.
Name the 4 types of plastids.
Proplastids leucoplast chromoplast chloroplast
- Non-pigmented immature plastids - main job --> derives other plastids
-Non- pigmented plastid -Job --> stores starch
Study of plant evolutionary relationships
Study of plant classification
Class definition of a Plant -
Organisms that possess plastids
Cell organelle associated with PSYN
True plant
Possess chloroplasts with DMBO and chlorophyll A and B
Stores starch
Non-embryo bearing plants
Embryo bearing plants
Non-vascular embryophytes
Vascular embryophytes
Non-seed bearing tracheophytes
Seed bearing tracheophytes
Non-flowering spermatophytes
Flowering spermatophytes
Any level of taxonomic hierarchy
Any entity within Rank
Phylum standard ending
Class standard ending
- Plastid where the carotenoid pigments dominate - job --> attract animals
-Plastids where the Chlorophyll pigments dominate - Job --> conduct PSYN
_______ interconvert given different environments (e.g. fall colors)
Pigmented innermost membrane of the double membrane bound organelles
Thylakoid vesicle
-Stacked vesicles - Site for light rxn - Derives ATP and NADPH
-Fluid Matrix - site of Dark RXN (glucose)
The evolution for the DMBO is via ______
Endosymbiotic Theory
name the 8 Ultrastructure for the chloroplasts in DMBO
1. Outer membrane 2. inner membrane 3. thylakoid membrane 4. thylakoid vesicle 5. granium 6. stroma 7.DNA 8. Ribosomes
- known as "alleukaryotic cells" - site of aerobic respiration
Name the 5 ultrastructures for the mitochondrion
1. Outer membrane 2. Inner membrane 3. Matrix 4.DNA 5. Ribosome
Order standard ending
Age of universe origin
15 BYA
Age of our Sun
Age of Earth
4.5 BYA
Alexander Oparin
Oparin Theory - developed about the primitive Earth atmosphere
Stanley Miller
Miller Experiment - tested Oparin Theory
1st fossil organisms found in and were what?
3.5 BYA and were prokaryotic heterotrophs
Autotrophic prokaryotes and PSYN evolved
3.4 BYA
Cyanobacteria evolved?
2.7 BYA
- another name for inner membrane - site for electron transport chain - derives ATP
-inner fluid -site for Kreb's cycle in the mitochondrion - derives ATP
In the mitochondrion, is the DNA histone present or absent, prokaryote like or eukaryote like?
Histone Protein ABSENT Prokaryote Like
The evolution of the Mitochondrion is via ______________
endosymbiotic theory
- location of chromosomes - regulates cell metabolism - known that it is in most euk. cells
The evolution of the nucleus is via ____________
Autogenous Theory
Name the 5 ultrastructures for the Nucleus
Envelope pore nucleoplasm chromosomes nucleolus
Supporting evidence for cyanobacteria evolving
Stromatolite fossils
Aerobic respiration evolved
2.5 BYA
Common name for prokaryotes
Distribution of bacteria
Cosmopolitan - Worldwide
Habitat of bacteria
Ubiquitous - All habitats
3 growth forms of bacteria
Unicellular, Colonial, and Filamentous
3 cell forms of bacteria
Coccoid, Bacilloid, and Spirilloid
Non-living gelatinous sheath and inhibits desiccation
Composition of capsule
Site in the nucleus where ribosome synthesize
Part of the nucleus that has a double membrane
Part of the nucleus that host the fluid matrix
Part of the nucleus that has linear DNA wit histone proteins
Evolution of the nucleus is via _______
Autogenous Theory
Name the 2 single membrane bound organelles
Vacuole and Peroxisome
Name the one non-membrane bound organelle
-Plant cells only - largest organelle - storage for the organelle
Name the ultrastructure for the vacuole (2)
tonoplast and cell sap
The Cell Wall is a - - Function
- Non-living rigid layer - Supports and protects cell
2 Compositions of cell wall
1. Peptidoglycans 2. Lipoplysaccharides
Peptidoglycans in bacteria
Protein sugar complex Always present
Lipoplysaccharides is composed of a - And is either _______ or absent
- Lipid sugar complex Present or absent
Gram Stain Test - Lipoplysaccharides absent ->
Gram +
Gram Stain Test - Lipopolysaccharides present - >
Gram -
Protoplast (bacteria)
Living content beyond cell wall
Cell membrane (bacteria)
-outer protoplast boundary -mediates transport into and out of cell
Mesosomes (bacteria)
-membrane invagination -increases surface area -increases functional capacity
- Confined to PSYN cells - site for photorespiration
Composition of _______: -RNA and Protein Complex - larger than prokaryotes
Endo Membrane Systems 2 components
Endoplasmic Reticulum and golgi
The membrane distributed throughout the cytosol Its job is to transport and communicate through the system
- ribsomes present -connected to the nucleus - site of enzyme synthesis
Rough ER
- Ribosomes absent - connected to the rough ER - site of the membrane synthesis
Smooth ER
An ER derived vesicle assemblage whose job is the packaging center for the cell exit
Ultra structure for the Golgi (2)
ER Pole and Membrane Pole
Which pole in the Golgi is in close proximity with the ER
ER Pole
Which pole in the golgi is in close proximity to the cell membrane?
membrane pole
An internal support system which is made up of microfilaments and microtubules
A solid acting filament found throughout the cytosol which induces cyclosis
Hollow tubulin tubule that is found in cytosol
What is a propulsion appendage
IN a flagellum, is the 9+2 microtubule present or absent..... is a membrane resent or absent
both are present
Name the 3 cell cycles in a true plant
Interphase, Karyokinesis, and Cytokinesis
What phase is the interval between cell division?
What is the longest phase in the cell cycle?
Era - Precambrian
Before 570 MYA
Era - Paleozoic, Period - Cambrian
570->500 MYA
Era - Paleozoic, Period - Odovician
500->435 MYA
Era - Paleozoic, Period - Silurian
435 -> 395 MYA
Era - Paleozoic, Period - Devonian
395 -> 345 MYA
Era - Paleozoic, Period - Mississippian
345 -> 325 MYA
Era - Paleozoic, Period - Pennsylvanian
325 -> 280 MYA
Era - Paleozoic, Period - Permian
280 -> 225 MYA
Era - Mesozoic, Period - Triassic
225 -> 195 MYA
Name the periods in Interphase (3)
G 1(=growth), Synthesis, G2
Which period in interphase: -prepares for repliciation - nucleotide synthesize
Growth 1 (G1)
Which period in interphase: -Replication Period -Chromosomes synthesize identical copies
Which period in interphase: -prepares for karyokinesis -microtubules synthesize
G2 (growth 2)
What means " nuclear division"
2 Types of Karyokinesis
Meiosis and Mitosis
Phases of Karyokinesis
Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase
Which sexual reproduction doesnt have a chromosome reduction?
Which sexual reproduction does hae chromosome reduction?
Cytoplasm division
2 Types of Cytokinesis
Cell plate and furrowing (depends on plant on which on it does)
Era - Mesozoic, Period - Jurassic
195 -> 140 MYA
Era - Mesozoic, Period - Cretaceous
140 -> 65 MYA
Era - Cenozoic, Period - Tertiary
65 -> 3 MYA
Era - Cenozoic, Period - Quarternary
3 -> Present
Periods - Mississippian + Pennsylvanian =
(Bacteria) Mesosome composition
Phospholipids and Proteins
(Bacteria) Cytoplasm
content beyond cell membrane
(Bacteria) Components of cytoplasm
-Cytosol -Organelles
Fluid matrix
In Eukaryotic Chromosomes, what is also known as chromosome pairs (maternal and paternal)
Homologous Chromosomes
In Eukaryotic Chromosomes, what is known as replicated chromosome arms?
In Eukaryotic Chromosomes, what is known as sep. chromatids?
Daughter Chromosomes
In Eukaryotic Chromosomes, what is known as the microtubule?
Kinetochore (sp?)
In the composition of a Eukaryotic Chromosome, chromatin is found. What is chromatin?
Nucleic acid (DNA) and the Protein Complexe (Histones that are binding protein)
The evidence of the first mitosis occuring, happened how many years ago?
1.5 MYA
What type of cells : -only undergoes mitosis -derives growth and maintenance cells -does NOT derive sexual reproduction cells -does NOT derive gametes or spores
Somatic Cells
Name the 3 cell phases for Somatic Cells
-Interphase (chromo. replicate) -Karyokinesis (mitosis) -Cytokinesis (by furrowing or cell plate)
What is the somatic cell cycle outcome?
2 genetically identical daughter cells
Name the 4 phases in the karyokinesis stage of the Somatic Cell
1. prophase 2.Metaphase 3.Anaphase 4.Telophase
In which phase of the karyokinesis stage of the Somatic cell cycle does the -nuclear membrane dissipate -chromosomes condense
In which phase of the karyokinesis stage of the Somatic cell cycle does the - chromosomes align along the equatorial plane -microtubules from spindle complex -microtubules attach to centromere/kinetochores
In which phase of the karyokinesis stage of the Somatic cell cycle does the -spindle complex contracts and breaks down the centromeres -chromotids sep. -daughter cells are formed -chromosomes move to opposite poles
In which phase of the karyokinesis stage of the Somatic cell cycle does the - spindle complex dissipates -nuclear membrane forms around chromosomes -2 daughter nuclei are formed
When in the vascular plant evolution did the thallus evolve?
about 750 MYA
The first evidence of meiosis occurred how many years ago?
about 570 MYA
What do the following produce when it undergoes meiosis: gametangia? sporangia?
1. gametes 2. spores
The # of homologous chromosome set/cells determine what?
Ploidy Level
Which cycle undergoes BOTH mitosis and meiosis which derives BOTH gametes and spores?
Germ Cell Cycle
2 homologous sets= 2n =? 1 chromosome set= 1n =?
2n= Diploid 1n= haploid
Interphase 1, Karyokinesis 1, Cytokinesis 1, Interphase 2, Karyokinesis 2, and Cytokinesis 2 show the stages for what?
Germ Cell Cycle Stages
What is the Germ Cell Cycle's out come?
4 cells, NOT 2!! (haploid 1n cells)
Name the 3 types of gametes.
Isogamous, anisogamous, oogamous
Which gamete has a male and female that are motile and identical in size?
Which type of gamete has a male and female that are motile, but the female is larger than the male?
Which type of gamete has a female that is large and nonmotile and a male that is smaller and motile?
What is another word for fertilization?
Two 1n gametes fuse together and make a zygote (2n) This is basically the definition of?
The first life cycle of a 2n cell is called what?
When was the first evidence of sexual reproduction?
570 MYA
What are the 3 types of sexual life cycles?
gametic, zygotic, and sporic
The gametic L.C. is for what?
animals and green algae
Name this sexual life cycle: -2n phase *gametangia (2n) *gametocytes (2n) - meiosis *gametes (1n) -1n Phase *gametes (1n) * syngamy -zygote (2n) -mitosis (which leads back to 2n phase)
Gametic LC
The Zygotic LC is for what?
fungus and green algae
Name this sexual life cycle: -1n phase *gametangia *gametocytes (1n) * divides by Mitosis *gametes(1n) ~syngamy -2n Phase *Zygote (only 2n cell) - Meiosis ** Spores (which divides by mitosis and starts at the 1n phase)
Zygotic LC
Which L.C. are inverse of each other?
gametic and zygotic
Which Life Cycle deals with plants and green algae?
Sporic Life Cycle
In the gametic L.C. which phase is multicellular and which is unicellular?
2n = multicellular 1n= unicellular
In the zygotic L.C. which phase is multicellular and which is unicellular?
1n= multicellular 2n = unicellular
Which life cycle has both the 1n and 2n phase as multicellular?
Sproic L.C.
Name this sexual life cycle: -2n *sporophyte ~you find sporangia ` sporocytes (2n) *undergoes meiosis *spores (1n) ~mitosis - 1n phase *gametangia ~gametocytes (1n) `mitosis *gametes (1n) ~syngamy
Sporic L.C.
What are the 2 life cycles that are only associated with the sporic l.c.?
Isomorphic LC and Heteromorphic L.C.
Which life cycle of Sporic LC is where the gametophyte and sporophyte have the same morphology?
Isomorphic LC
Which life cycle of Sporic LC is where the gametophyte and sporophyte have different morphology? (algae and embryophytes)
Heteromorphic LC
What is the common name for the Kingdom Plantae?
True Plants
The first pigment of a true plant is chlorophyll A & B. The second pigment is cartenoids. What are the two types of cartenoids?
Carotenes and Xanthophylls
In a plant, food is stored and reserved as what?
The cell wall is composed of what?
Around how many years ago did Chlorophyta evolve?
900 MYA
What are the common names for Chlorophyta?
green algae or chlorophytes
The study of Algae
What is a photosynthetic eukaryote that is lacking an embryo?
Algae used to be place in what Kingdom? What kingdom is it in now?
use to be in Kingdom Plantae now in Kingdom Plantae (bc it is closer to a TRUE plant)
How many species of algae are there?
17,000 sp
How many species of green algae are there?
about 500 sp
Since algae is found world wide, some forms are ____________ or __________
aquatic and terrestial
A type of algae that is free-floating or swimming
A type of algae that is aquatic that is known as bottom dwellers.
A type of aquatic algae that is considered to be plant upon plant
A type of terrestrial algae tat is a rock substrate
A type of terrestrial algae that is a soil substrate
A type of terrestrial algae that is a snow substrate
Unicellular species of algae evolved how many years ago?
900 MYA
Multicellular species of algae evolved how many years ago? (ex Paleoporella)
550 MYA
What is the algae class standard ending?
What are the 3 classes of the chlorophyta?
-Chlorophyceae -Ulvophyceae -Charaphyceae
Which class under the Chlorophyta eventually led to the evolution of embryophytes?
Name the 5 growth forms of a Charaphyceae
unicellular (ex. Micrasteria) colonial (ex Volvox) Filamentous (ex. Spirogyra) -membranous (ex. Ulva) -Parenchymatous (ex. Chara)
What converts glucose into sugar and is found in the chloroplast?
Charophyceae has grana. What is grana?
stacked thylakoids
-Persisted Nuclear Membrane -Non-persisted karyokinesis spindle -daughter nuclei close post karyokinesis
Karyokinesis in Chlorophyceae`
- persistent nuclear membrane -persistent karyokinesis spindle - daughter nuclei separate post karyokinesis
-Non-persistent nuclear membrane - persistent karyokinesis spindle - daughter nuclei sep. post karyokinesis
-Furrowing -Phycoplast :present -microtubules align parallel in c. division
What is a phycoplast?
cytokinesis spindle
-furrowing(not cell plate) -cytokinesis spindle :absent
-Cell Plate (not furrowing) -Phragmoplast :present -microtubules align perpendicular to cell division -aligns golgi vesicle for plate formation
(Bacteria) Reproduction 1. Sexual: Present or absent 2. Asexual: 2 Types
1. Absent 2. Binary fission and Fragmentation
(Bacteria) Binary Fission 1. Division of cytoplasm or __________ occurs 2. Karyokinesis: Present or Absent
1. Cytokinesis 2. Absent
(Bacteria) Fragmentation
Colony and filament break-up
Highly diverse respiration and nutrition
(Bacteria) 3 types of respiration modes
1. Obligate anaerobes 2. Facultative 3. Obligate aerobes
Obligate anaerobes
- Utilize anaerobic respiration - O2 lethal - Confined to anaerobic habitats
- Utilize anaerobic or aerobic respiration - O2 absent -> anaerobic respiration - O2 present -> aerobic respiration - O2 non-lethal
Obligate aerobes
- Utilize aerobic respiration - O2 required - Confined aerobic habitats
(Bacteria) 4 nutrition modes
1. Heterotrophic 2. Autotrophic 3. Chemosynthesis 4. PSYN
Plastids and Mitochondria possess - DNA 1. __________ like 2. Histone proteins: Present or absent
1. Prokaryotic 2. Absent
Which two parts of the Chlorophyta Cytokinesis has -apical insertion -multilayered structure : absent
Chlorophyceae and Ulvophyceae
Chemosynthesis - 1. energy source -> 2. Chlorophyll: Present or Absent
1. Chemical energy 2. Absent
Bacteria chlorophyll - electron donor ->
Hydrogen Sulfide
True Chlorophyll - electron donor ->
Cyanobacteria evolve true plt chloroplasts via ->
endosymbiotic theory
Phylum cyanophyta evolved ____ BYA
2.7 BYA
Cyanophyta - 3 common name -
1. Blue-green bacteria 2. Cyanobacteria 3. Cyanophytes
Cyanobacteria 1. Diversity - _____ species - _____ genera 2. Distribution 3. Habitat
1. 200 species 15 genera 2. Cosmopolitan 3. Nearly ubiquitous Prefers water
Fossil evidence for cyanobacteria evolution
Fossil Stromatolites
(Cyanobacteria) Growth forms (3)
1. Unicellular 2. Colonial 3. Filamentous
- Clear living cell - Polar nodules - Modified: N2 fixation
- Dark thick-walled cell - Survives drought conditions - Modified: propagation
- Clear dead cell - Fragments trichome
- Trichome fragment - Modified: propagation
(Cyanobacteria) Cell wall 1. Gram + or Gram - 2. All _____ _____
1. Gram - 2. Blue Green
Thylakoid -
Membrane with PYSN pigments
Thylakoid grana: present or absent
Grana -
Stacked thylakoid vesicles
PYSN pigments imbedded within _______
(Cyanobacteria) ~1 PSYN pigment
Chlorophyll A = green
(Cyanobacteria) ~2 PSYN pigments (2)
1. Carotenoids 2. Phycobilins
Carotenoids 1. H2O ________ pigments 2. ________ - orange 3. ________ - yellow
1. Insoluble 2. Carotenes 3. Xanthophylls
Phycobilins 1. H2O ________ pigments 2. ________ - red 3. ________ - blue
1. Soluble 2. Phycoerythrins 3. Phycocyanins
(Cyanobacteria) Food reserve
Glycogen - glucose polymer
(Cyanobacteria) Flagellum: Present or Absent
Phytoplankton (2)
1. Cyanobacteria 2. Algae
Lotic - ________ water
Lentic - ________ water
N2 Fixation
N2 gas converted via nitrogenase to nitrates
3 Types of Cyanobacteria symbiosis
1. Parasitism 2. Commensalism 3. Mutualism
1 species benefits and 1 adversely affected
1 species benefits and 1 unaffected
Both species benefit
Lichen is a _________ symbiotic relationship
Lichen 1. Cyano provides -> 2. Fungus provides ->
1. Glucose 2. Security
3 Lichen Growth Forms
1. Crustose 2. Foliose 3. Fruticose
1. Crustose - _____ _____ growth form 2. Foliose - _____ _____ growth form 3. Fruticose - ________ growth form
1. Crust-like 2. Leaf-like 3. Branching
4 Cyanobacteria representative genera
1. Anabaena 2. Gloeotrichia 3. Merismopedia 4. Stigonema
Cyanobacteria evolve ______ ________
Green Bacteria
Phylum Cyanophyta 2 Common names
1. Green Bacteria 2. Prochlorophytes
Green Bacteria - Diversity 1. ____ Species 2. ____ Genera
1. 12 2. 3
Green Bacteria - Distribution - Habitat
- Tropical and Temperate - Strictly aquatic
Prochlorophytes 1st discovered as ___-______ ________.
Sea-squirt symbiont
(Cyanophyta) Thylakoid: Grana present or absent
(Cyanophyta) ~1 Photosynthetic pigments
Chlorophyll A and B
(Cyanophyta) ~2 PSYN pigments 1. Phycobilins: Present or absent 2. Carotenoids: Present or absent
1. Absent 2. Present
Cyanophyta representative genus (1)
Unicellular eukaroytes evolve - ____ - ____ BYA
2.1 - 1.8 BYA
Eukaryote characters 1. Ribosomes: Large or small 2. Histone proteins: Present or absent 3. Sexual reproduction: Absent or present 4. DMBO - Present or absent
1. Large 2. Present 3. Present 3. Present
DMBO 1. Def - 2. 3 examples
1. Possess outer and inner membrane 2. Nucleus, Mitochondrion, and Plastids
Theory in attempt to explain nucleus evolution via mesosome specialization
Autogenous Theory
Plastid evolution scenario
heterotroph consumes autotroph via endocytosis and symbiotic relationship develops
Plastid evoution 1. Autotroph provides heterotroph - 2. Heterotroph provides autotroph -
1. Glucose 2. Security
Mitochondrion evolution scenario
Identical to plastid evolution Exception: Aerobic prokaryote undergoes endosymbiosis
Plastids and Mitochondrion possess - Ribosomes 1. _________ like 2. Large or small
1. Prokaryotic 2. Small
Plastids and Mitochondrion possess - Reproduction 1. __________ like 2. _______ fission
1. Prokaryotic 2. Binary
Euglena evolved through _________ _________ event
2nd endosymbiotic
Euglena has _______ and therefore not a _____ plant
1. Triple MBO 2. True
(True Plant) Middle Lamella
- Area between adjacent plt cells - Bonds adjacent cells
(True Plant) Middle Lamella composition
Polysaccharide pectin
(True Plant) Cell Wall
- Non-living rigid layer - Structural support and protection
(True Plant) Cell Wall composition (3)
1. Cellulose 2. Micelle 3. Microfibril
Glucose polymer
Cellulose assemblage
Aggregated micelles
Flexible-glue - bonds microfibrils
Aggregated microfibrils
Flexible-glue - bonds macrofibrils
Rigid glue
(True Plant) ~1 Cell Wall 1. Derived _______ _____ ________ 2. High _______ content 3. Flexible or Rigid
1. During cell growth 2. Pectin 3. Flexible
(True Plant) ~2 Cell Wall 1. Derived ______ ______ _______ 2. Deposited inward of ____ ______ 3. High ________ content 4. Flexible or Rigid
1. After cell growth 2. ~1 growth 3. Lignin 4. Rigid
(True Plant) Plasmodesmata
- ~1 wall conduits between adjacent cells - Intercellular communication
Plasmodesmata - Ultrastructure (3)
1. Cell membrane 2. Desmotuble = ER Tubule 3. Cytosol
Which part of the Chlorophyta Cytokinesis has -subapical insertion -Multilayered structure; Large Microtubule root: present
Antheridium is the _________. Oogonium is the what ________.
1.Sperm 2. egg
Which is unicellular and which is multicellular? 1.Gametangia in Chlorophyceae and Ulvophyceae 2.Charophyceae 3. Chara
1. unicellular 2.unicellular 3.Multicellular
The multicellular gametangia is identical with what?
The following shows the shared characteristics of what two things? -Chloroplast: grana present -Karyokinesis: persistent spindle -Cytokinesis: cell plate and phragmoplast -Flagella: subapical insertion _gametangia: multicellular
Charophyceae and Embryophyte
Charophyceae , like alga, evolved to ______________.
What is parenchyma talloid fossil Alga which is from over 400 MYA?
What possesses the following: -Silurian -posses cuticule -Coleochaeta
This is an outer waxy layer that inhibits H2O loss. It also suggests terrestrial habitat.
Reproduction of the Parka is sexual or asexual?
BOTH asexual (by mitosis and fragmentation) - Sexual (by gametic LC, Zygotic LC, and sporic LC)
This is a sex life cycle for what ? -Free Living Cells (1n) -Mitosis *gives rise to gametes(1n) -Syngamy *gives rise to zygote(2n) -Meiosis -Free living cells (1n) [Then starts back over]
Sex LC for Chlamydomonas
This is the sex life cycle for what ? -Sporophyte Generation (2n) (multicellular) -sporangium *will get sporocytes (2n) -meiosis -spores (1n) -mitosis -gametophyte generation (1n) (multicellular) -gametangia *will get gametocytes (1n) -divid
The embryophyte LC evolution is via what theory?
Antithetic Theory
When the gametophyte and sporophyte is physically attached in the Embryophyte L.C.. It is best explained by what?
Antithetic Theory
The Proembryophytes evolved how long ago?
A Plant with Charophyte and embryophyte characters (eg. Algaophyton)
Parka evolved into a Aglaophyton which eventually evolved into what?

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