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Bio Test 2


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Which of the following helps describe what cells are like:

A. Full of molecu

B. Watery
The process known as metastasis describes uncontrolled

A. Cell division.

B - Cell Migration
Which of the following could not be part of a gene?     
DNA can be said to store information digitally because

A. The base pairs

D. Information is encoded by the sequence, or order, of base pairs.
The correct order of phases of the cell cycle is:

A. Waxing, gibbous, full,

B. S, G2, M, G1
In a single-celled organism, which of the following does the cell cycle controller ignore:

A. The quantity of ribosomes.

Which of the following is true of cells in an organ, such as a liver:

A. The

B. They hold on tight to their neighbors
The building blocks of deoxyribonucleic acid are:

A. A sugar plus a base

A. A sugar plus a base plus a phosphate
Plants do not contain muscles but they are able to move,

A. Which means that

C. Which is often related to their intense need for light
Pollen tube growth

A. Is driven by secondary metabolites.

C. Is related conceptually to animal sperm swimming
As a defense against herbivory, you could expect to find in a leaf:

A. Ter

A. Terpenoids, phenolics, and alkaloids.
The turpentine industry of the south eastern United States

A. Underscores th

A. Underscores the idea that plants often make seconodary metabolites in large amounts

A. Is an alkaloid.

A. An Alkaloid

On hikes, and in gardens, I commonly see herbivore damage (e.g., holes or bite marks) to leaves but rarely to flower petals. This is probably because:

D. The phenolic pigments coloring flowers are toxic

The secondary metabolites known as alkaloids

A. Are chemically more diverse

D. All of the above
As presented in class, the relation between heartburn during pregnancy and the hairiness of the newborn is:

A. Correlational

Establishing the truth about causality requires:

A. Observations, epidemiology,

C. Observs, experims, and connects
Epidemiology is the study of:

A. Skin

D. Patterns of human diseases
Which one of the following is true:

A. Most men who smoke cigarettes die from lu

B. Most men who die of lung cancer smoked cigarettes
Patterns of exposure to pesticides

A. Have remained roughly constant for the

D. Are presumably mirrored by patterns of exposure to synthetic chemicals of all sorts
Macromolecule is to metabolite as

A. Novel is to word.

A. Novel is to word

A core group of metabolites is shared among all organisms on Earth. These primary metabolites number about:

B. 250

Plants make secondary metabolites

A. Because their metabolism is more complex th

B. Which means they are loaded with pesticides
Which of the following is an input to the cell cycle controller that is unique to multicellular organisms:

D. Hormone Present

Hormone comes from a Greek word meaning:
Which one of these is NOT a condition calling for division signals in multicellular organisms:

Long entry in blog
The cell cycle controller is a kinase. To active the controller, for example when a checkpoint is satisfied, the cell might use

A. Another Kinase

A scribe copying a text like enzymes replicating DNA can make mistakes. For a scribe copying the word \"altar\", which mistake corresponds closest to a mis-sense mutation?

A. Happens in sequence after mitosis in proliferating cells.

Virus coats often assemble into geometrically regular polygons

A. because

D - To help insure that they can be put together fast and w/o bother in an infected cell.
Workers in chemical refineries are subject to high rates of liver and bladder cancer, probably because


B. Chronic exposure to organic solvents damages tissue.
Tumor cells have mutations that: (4)
Keep them dividing AND hide them from the immune sys AND prevent them from aptoping AND allow metastasis
What do we need for the experiment? (4)  

1.Control Group

2. Placebo

3. Safety Factor

4. Maximally tolerated dose (MTD) 

If MTD gives 1 in a thousand, then MTD/1000 gives..
in a million
MTD's cause (big problem) ...  
Tissue Damage!
4phases of cell duplication:
G1 (growth), S (dna synthesis), G2 (growth), M
A _____ checks each step is ok before letting the next step start.  
2 things are important for the controller to check:
Cell size and DNA damage
In a multicell org., division requires
Stem cells are the organism's professional...
cell dividers
Mutations allow the control over _________ to be weakened.
The cell cycle controller is a:  
An enzyme that phosphorylates its target.
Enzyme that de-phosphorylates its target.
Cell proliferation can be driven by...  
Mutations in proliferating cells can:
The body kills out of control proliferating cells with: 2
The immune system AND cellular apoptosis
Cell proliferation is enhanced by ________ even to the point where the org ______.
selection , dies
3 classes of plant secondary metabolites:
terpenoids, phenolycs and alkaloids
Terpenoids are often: (3)
Oils, resins, scents
3 examples of terpenoids:
Terpentine, Taxol, Digitalis
Phenolics are often: (3)
Poisins (spices), Pigments, Signals
The famous plant pigment:
3 colors of Phenolyic pigments:
red, blue and purple
Red blue and purple pigments are:
Alkaline is the opposite of:
Alkaloids are _______, chemically
Alkaloids are______ and _______
poisins and medecines
3 ex of alkaloids:
Morphine, nicotine, atrophine
Cancer = ____________ + __________
Uncontrolled cell division + Cell migration
A cell is a ___________, which can replicate.
Cells burn____
Cells build ___________
3 Amazing things about DNA:
Pair rule, length, digital storage
Duplication of a cells contents is:
a lot of work
Machines for building protein to spec
Cells store__________ in addition to DNA
Primary metabolites are __________ and number ___.
Secondary metabolites help plants...
interact w/ other orgs
Plants use 2ndary metabolites for: (3)
Sex, dispersion and defense
Plants contain pesticides (and other 2ndary metabolites) at:
high concentrations