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Lab Quiz #11


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silent mutation
A mutation that changes a single nucleotide, but does not change the amino acid created.
A detectable, heritable change in the genetic material not caused by recombination
A large molecule made up of many amino acids joined by peptide linkages. Large ones are called proteins.
A mutation in which a segment of a chromosome is repeated, often by the attachment of a segment lost from its homolog.
A rare 180-degree reversal of the order of genes within a segment of a chromosome.
conditional mutation
Mutations that show characteristic phenotype only under certain environmental conditions such as temperature.
translation unit
Components involved in translation: small ribosomal subunit, large ribosomal subunit, mRNA, tRNA.
In genetics, a rare mutational event that moves a portion of a chromosome to a new location, generally on a nonhomologous chromosome.
release factor
A cytoplasmic protein that binds to a stop codon where it appears in the A-site of the ribosome. These proteins modify the peptidyl transferase activity of the ribosome, such that a water molecule is added to the end of the completed protein. This releases the finished protein from the final tRNA, and allows the ribosome subunits and mRNA to disassociate.
The synthesis of RNA using one strand of DNA as the template
induced mutation
A mutation resulting from treatment with a chemical or other agent. (Contrast with spontaneous mutation).
RNA polymerase
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of RNA from a DNA template.
spontaneous mutation
A genetic change caused by internal cellular mechanisms, such as an error in DNA replication. (Contrast with induced mutation).
The synthesis of a protein (polypeptide). Takes place on ribosomes, using the information encoded in messenger RNA.
messenger RNA
A transcript of one of the strands of DNA; carries information (as a sequence of codons) for the synthesis of one or more proteins.
A mutation resulting from the loss of a continuous segment of a gene or chromosome. Such mutations never revert to wild type. (Contrast with duplication, point mutation).
Three nucleotides in messenger RNA that direct the placement of a particular amino acid into the polypeptide chain. (Contrast with anti-codon).
transfer RNA
A family of double stranded RNA molecules. Each one carries a specific amino acid and anticodon that will pair with the complementary codon in mRNA during tranlation.

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