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Chapter 10 Nutrition


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Name 4 guidelines for Americans regarding exercise.
-Engage in regular physical activity. -Engage in at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity activity most days of week. -For most people, greater health benefits can be obtained by engaging in activity for longer and more intense. -Achieve physical fitness by including cardiovascular conditioning, stretching exercises for flexibility, and resistance exercises for muscle strength and endurance.
Name benefits of following guidelines for exercise.
-More restful sleep, Improved nutritional health, body composition, bone density, resisitance to colds, lower risks of cancer, CVD, and Type 2 diabetes and anxiety and depression, stronger circulation and lung function, Reduced risk of gallbladder disease, Stronger self-image, Longer life and quality in later years.
Explain how at to what the body adjusts its fuel mix to respond to physical activity, various levels and duration.
At Rest: body derives more than half its energy from fatty acids, the rest from glucose and amino acids. During physical activity: body uses stored glucose and muscle glycogen. Early minutes: muscle glycogen provides energy. Later: messenger molecules, including epinephrine, flow into bloodstream to signal liver and fat cells to liberate their stored energy nutrients, primarily glucose and fatty acids.
What are the recommended intakes for carbs, fat, and protein?
Carbs: 45-65% 130 g/day Fats: 20-35% Proteins: 0.8 g/kg/day...Women:44 men: 56
Describe the Process of carb loading.
6 days before event: Moderate training for 90 mins. Eat 5 g/kg/day 4/5 days: Moderate training for 40 mins. Eat 5 g/kg/day. 2/3 days: Moderate for 20 mins. 10 g/kg/day 1 day before: Rest. Eat 10 g/kg/day
Name 2 benefits of carb loading.
-Enable muscles to store large amnts of glycogen to extend endurance. -Can nearly double muscle glycogen concentration.
What 2 vitamins are of concern when it comes to supplements for athletes?
Vit. E and Iron
Why do so many athletes take Vit E Supps. Should they?
During long physical activity muscles consumption of oxygen increases tenfold or more-producing damaging free radicals in body. -Vit E. protects cell membranes -Although it helps with oxidative damage, it may do as much damage in toxicities.
Why do some athletes need iron.
Many females need it. -Due to low intakes or iron, high iron losses through menstruation and high demands of muscles for iron containing molecules. -Iron helps deliver muscle's oxygen. -They do not need supplements unless they are underweight or not getting enough food.
What are fluid needs for an athlete before and after exercise.
They can lose 1.5 quarts of fluid each hour of activity. -2 hr. before: 2-3 cups 15 min before: 1-2 cups Every 15: 1/2-2 cups After activity: 2 cups for every pound of weight lost.
Why are sports drinks preferable for athletes.
Sports drinks provide 7% gluocse, also sodium and electrolytes. -Electrolytes: Sodium, Potassium, and chloride lost in sweat. NO SALT TABLETS: increase dehydration and potassium loses.
Describe a pre-game meal?
Guidelines: -Easy to digest -Hi carbs: breads, potatoes, pastas, fruit juices. -Low in fat, protein, fiber -3-4 hours before event
How does the body derive energy from fat?
Early in activity muscles draw on fatty acids from 2 sources -From fats stored in working muscles and fat deposits. -Areas with the most fat to spare-give to blood. At the start of activity blood fatty acid concentration falls. A few minutes in epinephrine signals fat cells to break apart stored triglycerides and to liberate fatty acids in the blood. After 20 mins of activity, blood fatty-acid concentration rises above normal resting concentration Only after 20 mins do fat cells shrink in size.
How does the body derive energy from Carbohydrates.
Anaerobic Use: -intense activity: uses glycogen quickly. -Muscles then rely on glucose, which (unlike fat) can be partially broken down by anaerobic meta. -So through anaerobic met glucose provides quick energy to muscles while taking glycogen. Aerobic Use -Moderate physical activity uses glycogen slowly. -During aerobic metabolism muscles get energy from glucose and fatty acids. By depending partly on fatty acids, moderate aerobic activity conserves glycogen. LACTATION: -Anaerobic breakdown of glucose produces lactate. -Muscles release lactate formed during exercise into blood and it travels to liver. -The liver converts lactate back to glucose
Describe body's use of energy during exercise.
Moderate intensity: -Glucose and FA -Aerobic Metabolism High intensity: -Lactate produced -Anaerobic metabolism.

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