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Psychology 101 Final


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the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Drive Reduction
physiological need creates an aroused drive that motivates an organism to satisify the need ex: drive for hunger or thirst drive reduction is eating or drinking
Conscious and unconscious motivations. Motivational conflict ex: eating disorder, or fetish not just to be skinny but also because you want control
Maslows model
Self actualization needs, esteem needs, belongingness and love needs, safety needs, physiological needs
explicit motivations
consciously stated goals ex: I\'m going to be a family guy new years resolution do it for a few months then it stops
Implicit motivations
unconscious goals: achievement (girl is beating him in golf) Intimacy: not interested in her just wants sex Power: Hes the boss going to fire her let her down
Thematic apperception test
when you are shown pictures of a situation asked to describe the entire situation then your answers are examined by a professionsl
5 stages of motivational change
pre-contemplation contemplation preparation action maintenance example: intervention alcoholic
cultural influence over motivation
asia vs america studying
emotions are brief and transient never dangerous always have a constructive function
emotions towards valued objects
sadness: loss of something valuable Anxiety: anticipation of loss of something valuable Anger: hostility towards object that caused loss of something valuable
circumplex model of emotions
neutral in the middle aroused to not aroused and pleasant to un pleasant everything in between
James-Lange theory of emotion
experience of emotions is awareness of physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli ex: sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) pounding heart ( arousal) fear (emotion)
Cannon-bard theory of emotion
Emotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger: physiological responses and subjective experience of emotion ex: sight of on coming car (perception of stimulus) leads to pounding heart (arousal) and fear (emotion) have to interpret situation
role of appraisal in models of emotion
appraisal cognitions leads to emotional response
Cognitive Therapy
Emotions result primarily from ones appraisals of the environment ex: F on a test leads to to sadness i will never succeed im stupid the no good things you tell yourself blow 1 grade out of proportion
emotion focused therapy
extreme experiences result from emotion potentiation ex: you begin to feel anger but then you feel scared about feeling angry which makes you more angry chain of emotions
cognitive distortions
Dichotomous thinking: all or nothing thinking Mind-reading: they think im a ____ emotional reasoning: because i feel ___ i am ___ Catastrophizing: If i do this something awful will happen Should statements: I should take care of him/her
The big 5 model
How many human personality traits exist? 5 OCEAN openness,conscientiousness, extraversion,agreeableness, neuroticism ex: Hysterical person: High on neuroticism, extraversion low on conscientiousness
Social psychologys attack on personality Walter Mischel
Behavior is determined entirely by situations you face. situation determines extraversion introversion, not traits. ex: Aggressive acts when approached teased punished warned all varry
Social cognitive theories/perspective
we learn behaviors from others what we see becomes our expectations ex: hysteria: observe extreme emotions from others in life interpretation that emptions cant be managed reinforcement for extreme expression of emotions find peers that are afraid of her and will reinforce extreme emotion
psychological disorder
harmful dysfunction in which behavior is judged to be atypical disturbing or maladaptive
diagnostic and statistical manual how they are defined
DSM-IV to meet criteria for a condition (depression) the individual must: have several issues out of a larger list of issues for a specified amount of time must interfere with basic life functions
Neurotic disorder
distressing disorder typically involving intense emotions or risky behavior (mood disorders, sexual disorders food disorders
Psychotic disorder
loss of contact with reality and typically includes irrational ideas and distorted perceptions hallucinations
personality disorder
chronically maladaptive personality style leading to severe impairments in social and occupational functioning flux of emotions cling to people easily cut themselves burn self etc
bio-psycho-social perspective
assumes that biological sociocultural and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological dosorders Biological: evolution genes brain structure chemistry Social: roles expectations definition of normality Psychological: stress trauma learned helplessness mood related perceptions and memories
Disease model (substance problem)
condition of the body that impairs the performance of a vital function brains of some people are more susceptible to the effects of alcohol: alcohol feels better to these people
Learning theory model
disorders are more environmental alcohol becomes associated with certain situations
Cognitive behavior model (substance abuse)
perceptions of self-efficacy determind our need for alcohol as a coping mechanism how you see certain things ex: the optical illusions
psychoanalytic model (substance abuse)
alcohol is seen as self medication
Family systems model (substance abuse)
family is unit of analysis all members of family involved in the development and maintenance of problems with alcohol ex: family rules: dont confront dad about drinking because he is fragile and this may push him over the edge intervention enabler savior scapegoat etv
bio-psycho-social model (alcoholism )
pulls all those together genes cues coping mechanisms underlying issues and family roles and functioning
Bio-psycho-social with depression
biological: 30% of tiwns will develop depression Psycho-analytic: depression is anger turned inward depression is a role depression is vengence Cognitive: depressed people hace negative view of themselves and the world Behaviorist/learning: life has become less reinforcing cope like our parents cope
An emotionally charged confiding interaction between therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties
seeks to make unconscious conflicts conscious ex: ocd lady thought children were going to die cam from unconscious thoughts of children because they are frustrating
Psychoanalysis: Interpretation
The analyst\'s noting supposed dream meanings, resistance, and other behaviors in order to promote insight
Psychoanalysis: Transference
The patients transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (love or hate for parents)
Psychoanalysis: Resistance
Blocking the consciousness of anxiety-laden material
Behavior Therapy
applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
behavior therapy: systematic desensitization
stimuli become associated with anxiety (social phobia) used with anxiety and phobias create hierarch of feared situations imagine situations then practice relaxation
Drug therapies how these drugs work
drug blocks sensor that tells how much serotonin to produce produces more after a while receiving cells become sensative to serotonin
electroconvulsive therapy
for severely depressed patients brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
Fundamental attribution error
tendency for observers when analyzing anothers behavior to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
fundamental attribution error: game show study
people assume the game show host is the smartest compared to the winnde of the game show because he has all the answers
social psychology & attitudes: Castro Study
1 group is paid 1 dollar to write a flattering paper about fidel castro other is paid 20 dollars after writing papers which group holds best opinion of fidel castro? 1$ group because you dont have a reason to write paper actually have to think hes not bad with 20$s you have a large reason to do it
Cognitive Dissonance theory
we acto to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent
cognitive dissonance theory Cult example
even after a cult leader says its wrong people believe it even more
Group thinking
mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overrides realistic appraisal of alternatives this is why psychologists dont thing big group brainstorming is efficient.
social psychology and conformity
The line comparison test video
Social psychology and roles:Stanford prison experiment
2 groups randomly chosen as guard or prisoner researchers told the guards to watch the prisoners the experiment had to be shut down after 2 days
Social psychology and obedience: Milgrams experiment
obedience although they knew person was in pain they followed the experimentors instructions
Social psychology and helping behavior
someone attacked and screaming but everyone assumed someone else was helping any given bystander is less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
Social facilitation
Improved performance of tasks in the presence of others occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered ex: sports stars are inspired by crowds applause but less talented sports players are nerveous by it
social loafing
tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts towards attaining a common goal than when individually accountable ex: when clapping in a big crowd you dont actually care about how much noise you make

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