This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

Chapter 10


undefined, object
copy deck
How much do you need daily:

of daily intake of calories
55% carbs
15% proteins
30% fats
a psychological drive to eat that is driven by learned stimulation by what we smell and see
a biological drive to eat that is driven by nerve stimulation by the gastrointestinal system and the brain

a state in which there is no longer a desire to eat; a feeling of satisfaction.  it is controled by the hypothalamus and the stomach and the small intestine
What role do these hormones play in why we eat?

endorphins, cortisol, and neuropeptides
increase hunger
What role do these hormones play in why we eat?

serotonin, leptin, and cholecystokinin
decrease hunger
Name some poor eating habits in the US
too few fruits and vegetables, too little fiber, too much fat, too much refined sugar and flour, too little calcium, too little water, too much food intake over all.
How can we improve the American diet?
aim for a healthy weight, be physically active each day, grains friuts and vegetables whould be in every diet

decrease cholesterol, saturated fat, salt and sugars from diet - eat at least 3 servings of calcium rich foods daily - limit
Name the 6 classes of essential nutrients and explain what an essential nutrient is.
1. carbohydrates
2. proteins
3. lipids
4. vitamins
5. minerals
6. water

essential nurtient: not produced by the body- must get from an outside source.
Each gram of Carb provides _____ calories of energy

Each gram of Protein provides ______

Each gram of Lipid provides ______

Vitamins yield ______ calories




1800 calorie diet, 55% carbs, 15% proteins, 30% fats....

Determine you daily gram allowance intake....
.55 X 1800 =

.15 X 1800 = 

.30 X 1800 = 
What is the body's major source of energy?
Wach gram of Carb provides _____ calories:
Carbs are converted to glucose in the blood by _____ and excess is stored in the ______ as ________ and in the ________ as ________.
liver as glycogen
adipose tissure as fat
carbs prevent what?
protein breakdown for energy
Carbohydrates should be ____ to ____ percent of you daily calorie intake.....
What are the two types of carbohydrates?

what is the RDA of each?
simple and complex

simple = 10%
complex = 40-50%
simple carbohydrates:
have no nurtritional value other than the calories of energy they produce

metabolized and absorbed quickly

a lot is hidden in processed foods

RDA= 10%
complex carbohydrates:
Nutrient dense b/c of additional vitamins , anioxidants and phytochemicals

Rate of digestion varies depending on the type of carb

RDA= 40-50%
What is fiber?

What are the two types?
the part of plant food that is not digested inthe small intestine. It aids in weight control by increasing satiety and slows glucose absorption.

insoluble and soluble

Insoluble Fiber
absorbs water and increases fecal bulk
Soluble Fiber
lowers blood cholesterol levels (LDLs)
a condition where the glucose level of blood drops significantly 2-4 hours after eating
What happens during a low carb diet?
body uses protein to make glucose available for body function.

Fat metabolism is impaired and ketosis disrupts ph of body.
how many grams of carbs are essential per day?
what happens during a high carb diet?
simple carbs flood the blood stream.

The pancreas must react to produce insulin to regulate blood glucose.

Over long period, excessive weight gain, decreased insulin production, Diabetes, Atherosclerosis, He
What is Syndrome X?
excessive fatigue 4-6 hours after eating
Proteins supply _____ in the form of ______
nitrogen, amino acids
what do blood proteins maintain?

what do blood proteins provide?
maintain body fluid balance

provide pumping action at the cell membrane
What are amino acids required to synthesis?
hormones and enxymes
proteins are key to a healthy _____ ______
immune system
proteins proved ___ calories of energy per gram
the body needs ____ different types of amino acids

_____ obtained through diet (essential)

_____ made by the body


review essential amino acids:

What is an essential amino acid?

what type of protein provides all 9 essential amino acids needed for proten synthesis?
Essential Amino Acid = not made by the body, must be obtained through diet/food

histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylatanine, tryptophan, valine

complete protein
Complete proteins are _______ protein bc they provide _____ ______ ______ amino acides needed for _____ ______
all 9 essential 
protein synthesis
Incomplete proteins are ______ protein bc they are _____ in _____ or _______ of the essential amino acids needed for ______ _______
1 or more
protein synthesis
Complementary proteins
when two or more proteins combine to form all of the nine essential amino acids
why do people prefer plant proteins?
b/c they have no cholesterol and little saturated fat

they also contain vitamins, minerals and fiber.
Estimate _____ grams of protein per kilogram of healthy weight.

So if I weight 100 lbs, how many grams of protein would I need daily?

100 x 2.2 = 220 x .8 =
Who requires more protein?  How much each?

training athletes?
physical labor, week-end sports, stress?
pregnancy- yes, 10-15 more grams a day 

training athletes- yes, 1-2 grams/kg a day

too much protein is a problem is it's animal protein...why?

what happens to the kidneys if you have too much protein?
b/c animal protein is high in saturated fat and low in vitamins and fiber

they have extra nitrogen to eliminate, they also lose more calcium.
a sever malnutrition of infants and young childres, caused by definiency in the quality and quantity of protein in the diet.

aka, atrepsia
chronic wasting of body tissues in young children due to prolonged dietary deficiency of prtein and calories.
lipids provieds ____ calories per gram
lipids prived ____ and ____ to food
texture and flavor
lipids help provide ______
name the 5 types of lipids:
1. saturated fatty acid
2. monunsaturated fatty acid
3. polyunsaturated Omega 6 fatty acid
4. polyunsatruated Omega 3 fatty acid
5. transfatty acids
what are trasfatty acids?  what do they do to food?
hydrogenated unsaturated vegetable oil

increases the self life of food.
what's the most common form of fat in the body?  All fats are converted to this after absorption and if they are not used, they are stored as this in adipose cells.

these are important structures of the brain and cell membrane.  They are made by the body.
This is a waxy substance present in the blood.  It helps to form bile acids adn certain hormones.

2/3 are made in the body, 1/3 is consumed
sterols / cholesterol
Omega 3 and Omega 6 should be ____ to ____ percent of our total calorie intake.

Where can you get these from?
1- 4%

Fatty fish 2 x / wk and plant oils
Fat Free means:
less than 0.5% fat per serving
low fat means:
less than 3 grams of fat per serving
reduced fat means:
25% less fat than reference
What is an essential organic substance that yeilds no energy (calories) and serves for a catalyst for many chemical reactions in the body?  

It is found in both plants and animals.
Name the fat soluble vitamins:

What is a fat soluble vitamin?
D, A, K, and E

A vitamin that requires fat for transportation and is not redily excreted (it's stored in fat).  Too much can cause toxicity.
Name two water soluble vitamins

What is a water soluble vitamin?
Vitamin C and all the Vitamin Bs

a vitamin that is dissolved in water, readily excreted, usually lost in cooking, and participate in energy metabolism.
Enrichment act of 1941
Water soluble vitamins are lost in the milling process, so the act requires mill to replace after processing.  

Replacement is called Enriched
What are Enriched vitamins

what is still lacking?
when the mills replace the water soluble vitamins lost in the milling process.  

still lacks B-6, magnesium, and zinc.
Name the two types of minerals:
macrominerals and trace minterals
more than 100 mg/day is required

Sodium, Potassium, choloride, Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium
Trace Minerals
less than 100 mg/day is required

Iron, Zinc, Copper, Iodine, Selenium, chromium
Typical Intake per day for microminerals:


4000 - 7000 mg/day -> only need 100 mg/day
2000 - 3000 mg/day -> need 3400 mg/day
600 - 1000 mg/day -> 1000 mg/day
RDA for trace minerals:

18 mg/day for femails, 8 mg/day for males
150 ug/day 
what mineral is key to retaining fluid in the body?
processed foods contain much more:
chemicals present in plant foods that interact with hormones, suppress malignant changes in cells, enhance immune function and reduce cholesterol levels.
found in soy products and reduce the long term effect of the bodies' own hormones.
chemical compoounds that neutralize free radicals in the body thereby depressing cell damage and slowing the aging process
Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
vitamins added were not in the original product
Vitamins were originally in the product but were lost during the milling process- everything was put back except zinc and magnesium.
nutrient dense food
products that provide the greatest % of daily value vitamin requirements and the least calories.
Caluclate the % of calories that is coming from fat, protein, and carbs:
total calories = 261
fat = 13 gm x 9 calories = 117 / 261 = .45
carbs = 31 gm x 4 calories = 124 / 261 = .47
protein = 5 gm x 4 calories = 20 / 261
less than 5 gms per serving or less that 5 calories per serving
less than 10 gms fat, less than 2 gms saturated fat, less than 95 mg of cholesterol
at least one serving contains 20% of daily value requirement
good source
one serving contains 10-19% of the daily value requirement
reduced / less
means the item contains 25% less of a nutrient or calories than the referenced product
1/3 fewer calories or half the fat or sodium has been reduced 50 %
exclude all animal products in diets

Deck Info