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Group Task - individual members try to maximize output for the group, automated (i.e. airplanes)
function of strength x immediacy x number
Central Leader
Groupthink - says yes or no, sometimes given biased or unanimous information
Combating Groupthink
Brainstorming - how to get a group to be creative Idea generation - get out all ideas, no evaluation yet Once all ideas are said, evaluation of each idea on its own
Commons Dilemma
harvest natural resources, take from the resource but it can be depleted if too much is taken - keep feeding ground viable vs. feeding all livestock. (i.e. endangered species, water usage during drought)
Group Task - individual member try to get an accurate account/evaluation, less social loafing, more cognitive processing (i.e. guess weight)
Minority Influence - strong arguments, more likely to stave off normative and informative social influence
Group Task - group is as good as its worst member (i.e. card houses, one at a time)
Minority Influence - give a little and the majority will swarm
Social Loafing - Other people can't identify your behavior as your own - no connection
Difficult vs. Threat
different set of autonomic nervous activity for each
Diffusion of responsibility
Social loafing - when you are in a group you don't feel as responsible and don't work as hard
Group Task - group can be as good as its best member, but it might not be the one with social influence - fall prey to social processing/prejudice (i.e. word problem)
Free Riding
Social Loafing - conserve your energy because you can get bby on efforts of others in the group
Groupthink - provider of information, biased, keeps away counter information, has power
General Social Dilemma
Maximize self-interest and potential gain for yourself and harm other people (i.e. tax fraud, HOV lane)
Group Polarization
individual attitudes tend to become more extreme when surrounded by like minds: normative and informative social influence
Group Task Types Effecting Performance
Additive, Compensatory, Disjunctive and Conjunctive - group task effects social loafing
Intragroup Issues - deterioration of mental efficiency, reality, testing and judgment that results from in-group pressures (i.e. Bay of Pigs)
How close you feel the audience is paying attention (i.e. in a classroom - get more arousal by looking at people in the front
SD Reduction - think twice about acting selfishly (normative influence)
Minority Influence - no personal stake in the game
Informative Social Influence
Group Polarization - want to be right, learn new information that leads to a strengthening of opinion
Intragroup Issues
Group polarization, Groupthink
Intragroup Performance
Within a group
Leadership: Contingency Model
Socioemotional and task leader
Legal Matters
SD Reduction - legal ramifications, fines and regulations, last resort
Maze Study
Easy/Difficult Maze Easier - faster with people watching Difficult - slower with people watching
Minority Influence
Effective minority characteristics: Consistency, Confidence, Independence
Normative Social Influence
Group Polarization - want to be liked
more peole evaluating you, the greater arousal (more arousal is created from going from a small number up one than from a big number up one)
Operant Conditioning
SD Reduction - Reward/Punishment
Survival instinct kicks in, fight or flight behavior, automative sustem arousal
Pluralistic Intelligence
Groupthink - people overestimate the degree of agreement
Pressure to Uniformity
Groupthink - pressure to go alon
Public Goods Dilemma
Giving to a resource for survival, free to enjoy resource by requires people to supply it or it will die (i.e. recycling, art museums, PBS/NPR)
Following aggressive behavior
Self Censorship
Groupthink - due to the power of the Gatekeeper, does not want to go against him
Smaller groups
SD Reduction - easier to organize, larger - people feel insignificant, anonymous
Social Dilemma
The conflict between wanting to maximize self-interest against the self-interest of the group as a whole (social comparison can play a role)
Social Dilemma Reduction
Normative/Informative social influence, Smaller groups, Indentifiability, Operant conditioning, Legal conditions
Social Facilitation (Performance Before)
arousal enhances the dominant response
Social Impact Theory
Where arousal comes from.
Social Loafing (Intragroup Performance)
less effort when working with others - individual responses cause less social loafing (i.e. relay races)
Socioemotional leader
most effective at medium levels of morale
Free throws better when alone
People are more worried about evaluation when you care about what the audience thinks (i.e. job interview)
Task Leader
Most effective at high and low levels of morale - worst at medium
Variable Effecting Groupthink
Central leader, Gatekeeper, Pluralistic intelligence, Self Censorship, and Pressure to Uniformity
Yerkes-Dodson Model
there is an optimal point where performance is best. Allows for different types of curves based on skill level or type of person

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