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250 Exam 1


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3 layers of embryonic disk
ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
3 life support systems mature and develop ______

What is development? 

A process of age-related changes across the lifespan
children change existing knowledge systems to accommodate new info
advantages of breast milk

reccommended for 6 months, 1 year w/ food

- correct balance of fat and protein

- nutritional completeness

- protection against disease (mom passes antibodies)

- easily digested

- smoother transition to solid foods (bc used

age of viability

22-26 weeks

age at which fetus can survive if born early

50/50 chance by 25 weeks 

alcohol as teratogen

effects same regardless of type

FAS - low birth weight, smaller brain, long term behavioral problems



protective sac

encases organism in amnionic fluid (cushion and temperature regulator) 

children incorporate new info into existing knowledge systems


classical conditioning/associative learning

learning theory - development continuous


when zygote reaches uterus and attaches to wall

hollow 100-cell ball

forms layers 


needed for breech positions, failure to progress

29% of births in 2004, most common form of major surgery


measure of ability of genotype to produce same phenotype regardless of same type of environment
caspi study


if have one type of serotonin gene and more stressors, more likely to be depressed 

cognitive behaviorism/social learning theory (bandura)

observational learning (imitation)

self-efficacy - internal belief in own competency; comes from experience

consequences of poverty

discipline and parenting

cognitive functioning  (verbal skills, academic achievement)

physical health status

socioemotional functioning 

continuous development
gradually adding on more
developmental neuroscience perspective

thoughts/behaviors arise from biology (genes, hormones, etc.)

biological plasticity - biology highly influenced by environment

result of interaction between genetic inheritance, biology, and environment over time


discontinuous development
stages, qualitative changes (something clicks and you instantly change)
dominant recessive

serious disorders NOT inherited this way because natural selection weeds these alleles out before reproduction occurs

but this is a way for less lethal traits/disorders to be inherited 




forms nervous system, skin, sense organs 

embryonic disk
cells on inside become new organism
embryonic period
2-8 weeks

inner layer

digestive system, lungs, glands 

environmental influences






socioeconomic status

larger cultural context and values 

evocative genotype/environmental correlations

children's genotype elicits certain type of environment


child's ADD causes parents to yell 

factors that influence impact of teratogens

duration and degree of exposure

timing of exposure 

genetic predispositions

presence of other factors 


union of sperm and ovum


occurs in fallopian tube 

fertilized egg contains __ chromosomes
46 - 23 from each parent
fetal period

9th week to birth

"growth and finishing" phase 

first trimester

physical structures become more complex

organs, muscles, nervous system organize and connect 

external genitals well-formed by 12th week

fetal heartbeat audible

behavioral changes (suck thumb, make fist) 

function of crying
babies communicate physical needs
germinal period

0-2 weeks

from fertilization to just before cell mass attaches to uterus wall (implantation) 

illegal drugs as teratogen

babies born addicted, experience withdrawal

long-lasting problems: low IQ, attention problems 

when blastocyst becomes embedded in uterine wall
infant motor development

cephalocaudal - head to feet (raise head before standing)

proximodistal - center out (coordination of trunk and arm precedes fingers, hands)

mass-to-specific - gross before fine (monster walk) 



information processing (computer theory)

human mind as symbol manipulating system through which info flows

development=gradual accumulation of knowledge - not stages

focuses on two cognitive processes: metacognition and increased capacity 

chomsky's hypothetical brain structure that enablese us to learn and produce language, a "language-generating capacity in our genetic code"

white downy hair

helps vernix stick to skin 

mechanistic theories

change stimulated by environment



middle layer

forms muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, excretory system 

awareness and understanding of how thinking works

about 15-20% of recognized pregnancies

90% occur by 12-13 weeks 

neural tube

from ectoderm

beginnings of spinal cord and brain 

newborn sensory capacities: sound

prefer complex sounds like voices

can distinguish almost all sounds in human language 

newborn sensory capacities: taste/smell

prefer sweet (like to nurse after mom has vanilla)

attracted to smell of mom's lactating breast 

newborn sensory capacities: touch

sensitive to touch/pain at birth

touch helps stimulate emotional and physical development 

newborn sensory capacities: vision

least mature of newborn senses

20/400, ~20/20 by 1 year

see best at 9-12" 

newborn sleep

spend greatest amount of time sleeping - 16-18 hours/day (not in a row, wake up every 3-4 hours)

alternate between rem and non-rem 


individuals seek out environments most compatible with genetic predispositions


becomes more prominent when children get older 

organismic theories

change stimulated from within


other teratogens

environmental pollution

infectious diseases 


moment during cycle when egg/ovum released from ovary

brief window for conception (egg lasts 24-48 hours; sperm last 2-6 days)


passive genotype/environmental correlations

parents provide environment based on own heredity


athletic parents raising children with sports 

paternal factors of teratogens

exposure to certain toxins can lead to abnormal sperm, could lead to low birth weight or other birth defects


later paternal age linked to defects (autism) 

piaget's cognitive development theory

child is naive active scientist

two major processes of change: assimilation and acccomodation

nature of change: learn in stages 


partial filler

permits food and oxygen to reach organism and carries away waste 

polygenic inheritence

multiple genes interact to produce a characteristic

this is how most psychological conditions inherited 

prescription/nonprescription drugs as teratogens



psychodynamic theory 

development occurs in stages

relations between three components (id, ego, superego) determine personality

psychosocial theory

covers lifespan - people continue to develop beyond childhood/adolesence

eight stages must be mastered to develop

emphasis on ego, not id - ego identity (who we are as individuals) 

purpose of reflexes

adaptive response to environment

allow to assess health of baby's cns

stimulate early development of muscles and cns

survival value

precursors to later motor skills


range of reaction
potential variability depending on environmental conditions in the expression of a genetic trait
risk factors of pregnancy

maternal nutrition (can damage CNS, lower birth weight) (recommend to take multivitamin and gain 25-30 pounds)

intense emotional stress (may lead to miscarriage, low birth weight; less oxygen to fetus)

maternal age (best in 20s, older

second trimester

13-24 weeks 

mother can feel movements

vernix and lanugo form 

six assumptions of lifespan perspective

1. development lifelong

2. development multidimensional

3. development multidirectional

4. development plastic

5. development involves growth and maintenance

6. influences on development 

skinner's operant conditioning

focuses on consequences of behavior

reinforcement, punishment

development continuous, not stages

smoking as teratogen

low birth weight

constricts blood vessels which reduces flow of nutrients to fetus 

stage 1 of labor

cervix dilates

happens through uterine contractions 

stage 2 of labor

fetus goes from uterus to vagina

head crowns

body emerges 

stage 3
placenta, umbilical cord released
stresses of poverty that weaken family

daily hassles

frequent crises

inadequate housing

dangerous neighborhoods

fewer neighborhood resources

negative role models/few successful models 

the Apgar Scale

used to assess newborn's physical condition on 5 criteria:

1. heart rate

2. respiratory effort

3. muscle tone

4. color

5. reflex response 

ratings given at 1 and 5 minutes

score of 7-10 means good; <

third trimester

25-38 weeks

layer of fat develops under skin to regulate temp

change in position to prep for delivery

age of viability 

three influences on development

normative - similar for individuals in particular age group

historical - similar for individuals in a particular generation at a memorable time in their lives

nonnormative - unusual occurances, major impact but not applicable to many peop

three types of crying

basic: starts softly and gradually becomes more intense (hungry, tired, uncomfortable)

mad: more intense

pain: sudden long burst, pause, gasp 


outer layer of cells

develops into life-support systems (amnion, placenta, umbilical cord) 

umbilical cord
structure that connects placenta to developing organism through which nutrients passed and waste removed

white cheeselike substance

protects skin from becoming chapped

vygotsky's sociocultural cognitive theory

focuses on how culture is transmitted

higher mental function grows out of social interactions and dialogues (cooperative dialogues)

cognitive development socially mediated 

why are c-sections a problem?

major surgery = long recovery (less time/energy for baby)


not needed - doctors too cautious 


fertilized egg

takes 3 days to travel down fallopian tube to uterus 

______ development of body parts and systems in 2nd month

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