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ABeka Science 7 - Chapter 2 - Bold Words


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an arrangement of flowers in which stems of nearly equal length emerge from a common point on the main stem
(p.53) stem
we eat the --- of the celery
(p.53) roots
we eat the --- of parsnips and carrots
(p.53) Seeds
we eat the --- of caraway
(p.53) leaves
fresh parsely on your dinner plate to dress up the food, but dried or fresh leaves are also used to add flavor to soups.
(p.53) Queen Anne's lace
the common tall weed, which is called " willed carrot" or "bird's nest" in some religions, is known for its beauty.
(p.31) Biology
The study of living things
(p.31) Botany
The branch of biology that specializes in plants.
(p.31) Botanists
Scientists who study plants.
(p.32) cross-fertilization
conveying pollen grains from one flower's stamen to another flower's pistil.
(p.33) Pistil
In the center of the flower is a vase-shaped structure.
(p.33) Stigma
The top of the vase.
(p.33) Style
The curved-in middle.
(p.33) Ovary
The large, rounded part at the bottom.
(p.33) Ovules
Potential seeds.
(p.33) Stamens
One or more structures, called ____, surround the pistil.
(p.33) Anther and Filament
A stamen consits of an ANTHER resting at the top of a hairlike FILAMENT.
(p.33) Sepals
are leaflike structures that surround the petals.
(p.33) Bud
The sepals enclose and protect the ___, the developing flower, until it opens up as a fully formed flower.
(p.33) Receptacle
The pistil, stamens, petals, and sepals are attached to the _____, the enlarged upper portion of the stem.
(p.34) Dissect
cut appart
(P.35) nectar
a sweet liquid usually stored in the base of the blossem.
(p.35) sperm nucleus
of the pollen grain divides to form two sperm nuclei.
(P.35) pollination
the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma.
(p.35) fertilzation
the formation of a seed by the uniting of a sperm nucleus from a pollen grain with an egg cell.
(p.35) pollinators
insects that aid in the pollination by helping pollen get to the stigmas of the flowers.
(p.35) cross - pollination
in which pollen is carried from one plant to another, is also likely to occur.
(p.35) pollen tube
begins to grow from the pollen' location on the stigma, through the style and into the ovary.
(p.35) Embryo
is a miniature plant made up of a plumule.
(p.35) plumule
a tiny shoot.
(p. 36)radicle
a small root.
(p.36) cotyledons
are structures designed for food absorbtion and storage.
(p.36) endosperm
Each seed has either one or two cotyledons that absorb stored food from the ___
(p.36) seed coat
the embryo and endosperm are surrounded by a tough outer covering.
(p.36) germination
the early growth of a seed.
(p.42) herbaceous perennials
non-woody, die during the winter, but in the spring of the next growing season, a new shoot grows from the underground roots or stems.
(p.40) germinate
begin growing.
(p.40) What three main things do seeds require in order to begin growing?
Favorable Temperature
(p.40) dormant
(p.40) Swell
the first stageof germination, the seed begins to ___ (by soaking up water)
(p.40) radicle
the second stage, the embryo grows a ____ (tiny shoot) that begins to push its way through the softened seed coat and into the ground.
(p.41) Plumule
the final stage of involves the emergence of the ____ (tiny shoot) above the surface of the ground and the growth of the radicle into root system.
(p.41) Photosynthesis
the food making process of plants
(p.41) seedling
when the plant nolonger depends on the cotyledons for nourishments-it is a seedling, and germination has ended
(p.42) Annual.
a plant which develops from a seed and produces new seeds in a single growing season.
(p.42) Biennials
plants that live through two growing seasons in order to complete their life cycles.
(p.42) Pernnials.
plants which live from year to year and bloom each season
(p.44) composite family
the largest family of flowering plants
(p.44) disk flowers
many closely packed, tubular ---- form the flower head's center, around which are a number of showy, petal-like ray flowers.
(p.44) asters
the ray flowers of -- are usually purple but may be pink or white; their disk flowers are yellowish.
(p.44) daisies
White asters are of ten mistaken for ---, which usually have yellowish flowers and white ray flowers.
(p.44) oxeye daisy
the most common wild daisy
(p.44) black-eyed Susan
is a composite with yellow ray flowers and dark brown or purpleish disk flowers.
(p.44) sunflower
the head of a ---- consits of rays which are yellow and disks which range from yellow to dark brown or purplish; a sunflower head can grow to over a foot across.
(p.46) goldenrod
the yellow ray and disk flowers of the --- grow in dense clusters along the flower stems.
(p.46) ragweed
a plant whose pollen causes allergic reactions in many peopl, resemble the goldenrod.
(p.44) Angiosperm
the scientific term for the flowering plants.
(p.44) Gymnosperm
nonflowering green plants, produce uncovered seeds, such as those that form on the scales of pine cones.
the word composite means "put together"; a composite "flower" is actually many small flowers grouped together.
(p.68) consumers
the animals and people who eat the plants
(p.68) herbivories
plant eating animals
meat eating animals
(p.48) The second largest plant family?
the pea family
(p.48) Legumes
Members of the pea family get their name from the --- (seed pods) which most of the plants produce;

Legumes help to restore nitrogen to the soil in the nitrogen cycle.
(p.49) cup-shaped blossom
a plant with 5 white, pink, or rose-colored petals forming a ----, it is very likely a member of the rose family.
(p.49) woody stems and fleshy fruits
Most plants in the rose family also have -----.
(p.49) What rose have flower parts in multiples of 5?
wild rose
(p.50) What is the buttercup family also known as?
the crowfoot family
(p.50) How tall does the common buttercup grow?
1 to 4 feet tall
(p.50) What do most plants in the buttercup family have?
non-woody stems and dry fruits
(p.51) What shape are the stems of mints?
they are square and stout
(p.52) What do honeysuckles have an abundance of?
trumpet-shaped flowers
(p.68) photosynthesis
the food manufacturing process of plants. means putting together with light
(p.68) chloroplasts
some of its energy is absorbed by tiny structures inside the cell
(p.68) Chlorophyll
the green pigment of plants
(p.68) ATP
Chlorophyll absorbs light energy and uses it to form the chemical ---, adenosine triphosphate
(p.68) gluclose
chemical energy released by ATP can then be used by the plant to make its own food - the simple sugar ---.
(p.68) stomata
little mouths; located on the underside of the leaf.
(p.68) stoma
(singular of stomata) is so tiny that there may be tens of thousands of them in a leaf section the size of a quarter.
(p.69) starches
complex chains of gluclose units
(p.70) Cellulose
a carbohydrate found in the cell wall of plant cells
(p.70) respiration
Food made during photosynthesis is broken down in a reverse process
(p.65) blade
the broad, flat portion of a leaf.
(p.65) simple leaves
Plants with ---- have only one blade attached to a petiole.
(p.65) compound leaf
has more than one blade joined to a petiole.
(p.65) leaflets
the multiple blades of a compound leaf
(p.65) sessile
the leaves of some plants, such as grasses, are --- they have no petioles but instead attach directly to the stem
(p.66) parallel venation
the main veins run seemingly parallel to each other
(p.66)pinate venation
small veins branching from one main vein
(p.66) palmate venation
small veins branching from more than one main vein
(p.66) palmately compound
all the leaflets attach to a common point at the tip of the petiole.
(p.66) nately compound
leaflets are located at intervals along the petiole.
(p.64) the four basic leaf shapes
broad, flat leaves; long, narrow leaves; needlelike leaves; and scaly leaves
(p.63) opposite
when they grow in pairs from a point on the stem.
(p.63) Alternate
leaves are individual leaves the grow in an alternating pattern along the stem.
(p.63) Whorl
consits of three or more leaves growing from the same point or nod on the stem.
(p.63) rosetta.
also known as a basal arrangement, is a cluster of leaves growing around the base of a plant.
(p.64) leaf margins
or edges, provide another way to distinguish between plants
(p.64) entire
Some leaves have margins that are smooth and unbroken, or ---.
(p.64) toothed
Others are ---, sometimes with small, sharp teeth and sometimes with large, blunt teeth.
(p.64) Wavy
edges are curved bumps that resemble ripples on the surface of a lake.
(p.64) lobed
Still ather leaves are ----. a --- leaf has extensions of itself (like your ear lobe), sometimes blunt, sometimes ending in a sharp point.
(p.65) petiole
-a stalk to which a blade is attached
(p.54) Common milkweed
can be found from June through August in almost any field or meadow. They are arranged in clusters at the top of the 3 to 4 foot tall plants.
(p.54) milky sap
from which the milk weed family's name derived
(p.54) pods split open along one side
and release seeds with several strands of silky flower attached (the floss enables the greeze to carry the seeds).
(p.56) Dicots
1. have broad leaves with branching veins.
2. flower petals are normally in groups of four or five and they usually have a large taproot with secondary rootlets.
3. the dicots make up the larger of the two groups af angiosperms - almost three forths of all the species of flowering plants are dicots.
(p.56) monocots
a "single scoop"
1. generally have long slender leaves with parallel veins.
2. they have petals in groups of three'
3. a fibrous root system.
(p.57) Bulb
a lily generally grows from a bulb.
1. a structure made of layers of thick fleshy leaves surrounding a very short stem.
(p.57) Kokerboom
a large trrlike lily which only grows in South Africa and may grow to a height of 30 feet.
(p.57) Corms
thick, vertical, underground stems.
(p.57) Rhizomes
horizontal stems lying along, or just under, the ground
(p.58) inferior
the ovary of an amaryllis is --- attached below the other flower parts
(p.58) superior
attached above the other flower parts
(p.58) belladonna lily
is a popular autumn-blooming amaryllis that grows from 18 to 30 inches tall, topped with a cluster of 6 to 10 flowers
(p.59) stolon
a creeping stem that grows above the ground
(p.59) culm
the stem, in grasses, is round and mostly hollow except at the node
(p.59) node
joint, the place where the leaf atthaches to it.
(p.59) sheath and a blade
Each leaf is made up of a ---------.
(p.59) spikelets
small, inconspicuous flower clusters growing along a main stem in spikes, racemes or compound racemes
(p.60) grains
from the flower the seeds or -- grow.
(p.60) sugar canes and bamboos
Grasses range in size from the short varieties used for lawns to the ----------. They grow on almost all land surfaces of the earth, from swamps to deserts and from polar regions and mountain hights to the tropics. In fact, they cover one third of the land are of the earth. Some bamboos grow very quickly- up to 36 inches per day. The tallest bamboo record was felled in India in November 1904, and measured 121 1/2 feet.
(p.60) The grasses may be considered what?
the most important group of plants on earth.
(p.60) cerals
wheat, barley, rye, oats, rice, and corn
(p.73) Wood plants
plants that live several years and develop a large amount of wood in their stems.
(p.73) herbaceous plants, or herbs
are non-woody plants
(p.73) vines
any plant with a long, thin stem that grows along the ground or has tendrills that twine around a wall or other support.
(p.73) taproot system
the primary (main) root grows straight down and remains larger than the secondary rootlets.
(p.73) fibrous root system
the primary root remains small, and many slender secondary rootlets grow from it.
(p.74) vegetative reproduction
plant reproduction without flowers, seeds or fruits.
(p.74) rootcap
the tip of the root consists of an outer cone - shaped -------- made up of several layers of dead cells and new growth cells that form imediately behind the cap.
(p.74) cambium
a woody dicot has a layer of cells called the --------.
(p.74) primary growth
growth in length
(p.74) secondary growth
growth in diameter
(p.74) root hairs
develop from the sides of the root and force their way between soil particles to absorb water and dissolved minerals.
(p.74) osmosis
the continuous movement of water from a solution of higher water content through a semipermeable membrane into a solution of lower water content.
(p.74) semipermeable membrane
is a membrane that will allow some molecules to pass through, but not others
(p.74) cortex
the inner portion of the root consists of storing age cells.
(p.76) xylem
tissue carries water and nutrients from the root hairs upward through the root and stem to the leaves.
(p.76) phloem
tissue carries sugars from the leaves back to the stem and roots.
(p.76) root pressure and capillary action
aid xylem
(p.76) transpiration
evaporation from the leaves
(p.77,2.8) In what direction does osmosis occur?
from a solution of higher water content to a solution of lower water content.
(p.77,2.8) Name the inner portion of the root that consists of storage cells.
(p.77,2.8) What is the name for the layer of cells which makes it possible for a woody dicot root to grow in diameter?
(p.77,2.8) What kind of growth occurs at the tip of a root?
primary growth (growth in length)
(p.77,2.8) What term is used to describe the evaporation of water from plant leaves?
(p.77,2.8) Name the two types of tissue that make up the plant's transport system, and describe how they are different.
xylem - carries water and nutrients from the root to the stem and leaves.
phloem - carries gluclose from the tleaves to the stem and roots to be stored.

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