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LS1 Midterm 1


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duplicate copies of genes that have undergone one or more mutations that eliminate their ability to be expressed
When are substitution rates in nucleotide positions the highest?
When the positions don't change the amino acid being expressed
If a molecule is essential of cell functioning, does it evolve fast or slow?
Gene family
a group of homologous genes with related functions, often arrayed in a tandem along a chromosome
genes found in different organisms that arose from a single gene in their common ancestor
genes that are related through gene duplication events in a single lineage
What was Frederick Griffith's 1920's experiment?
tested virulent and non-virulent types of pneumonia and found out that they shared genetic information
What were the Hershey Chase experiments?
The Hershey Chase experiments labeled proteins and DNA differently and discovered that DNA was the genetic material
The amount of purines always equal the amount of
Purine A =
pyrimidine T
Purine G =
pyrimidine C
What are the 4 nitrogenous bases?
The 4 nitrogenous bases are Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Thymine
a DNA is made up of:
a molecule of sugar deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base
What is the shape of a DNA molecule?
Double Helix
What are the 4 key features of DNA?
1) it is a double-stranded helix
2) It has a uniform diameter
3) it is anti-parallel
4) it is right-handed
Adenine pairs with Thymine by forming ____ hydrogen bonds
Guanine pairs with Cytosine by forming ____ hydrogen bonds
Semiconservative Replication
produce molecules with both old and new DNA, each new molecule will have one old strand and one new one
Replication complex
The close association of several proteins operating in the replication of DNA
Origin of replication
the part of the DNA where the replication complex binds
Replication Fork
A point at which a DNA molecule is replicating. The fork forms by the unwinding of the parent molecule.
DNA helicase
unwinds DNA
single-strand binding proteins
bind to the unwound strands strands to keep them from re associating into a double helix
a short, single strand of RNA , complementary to the DNA template strand
creates primer
repetitive sequences at the end of chromosomes
catalyzes the addition of any lost telomeric sequences
What are the three types of repair mechanisms? Describe them.
DNA proofreading - an incorrect base is taken out and polymerase adds a new base
Mismatch repair - proteins remove mismatched protein and bases around it and polymerase corrects the problem.
Excision repair - proteins remove damaged base and bases around it and polymerase replaces it
Instead of Thymine, RNA contains ___________
The origin of genetic variation is __________
what is a promoter?
A portion of DNA where the RNA polymerase binds
used for energy in the RNA transcription process
The relative proportions of all alleles in the population
What are the 5 necessary conditions for the Hardy-Weinberg theorem?
1)Mating is random
2)Population size is very large
3)there is no migration between populations
4)there is no mutation
5)Natural selection doesn't affect the alleles under consideration
Individuals don't evolve, ___________ do

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