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idea that something wrong with the body will disturb throught and actions
Violation of norms
one's behavior/expressed thoughts makes or threatens to make subject as well as observers anxious when observing it
Personal distress
behavior creates great distress and torment in the person doing it
field of psychology concerned with the nature and deveopment of abnormal behavior, thoughtss, and feelings
Statistical infrequency
infrequent behaviorm outside the limits of the "NORMAL CURVE" (statistical measure)
19th and 20th century change; Western European view: attributing mental disorders to psychological malfunctions; hysteria-THAT WERE SEEN TO CAUSE psychological diseases
Abnormal Behavior
the presence of several characteristics indicated by: statistical infrequency, violation of norms, personal distress, disability or dysfunction, and unexpectedness
if one shows unreasonable distress and/or disability as a reply to otherwise considered normal events
disability or dysfunction
impairment to act or function in everyday life (work, home, family, etc) shown by arguements (unreasonable) and expectations, etc
a conceptual framework or approach within which a scientist works a set of basic assumptions outlining a particular scientific inquiry for collecting and interpreting data
biological paradigm
a continuation of the somatogenetic hypothesis that holds that mental disorders are caused by aberrant somatic, biological or bodily disorders (Impacts: herdity peredispositions vs. Environmental, etc. "nature vs nurture"
behavior genetics
study of individual differences in behavior that are attributable in part to differences in genetic makeup
total genetic makeup of a person consisting of inherited genes (invisible and unchangeable)
observable characteristics of a preson (anxiety, behavior, etc. changes can be from environmental effects
consists of soma (cell body), dendrites (arms-extension), axons (long-thin extension from a cell body), and terminal buttons (on the end of axons)
nerve impulse
soma (cell body) receives stimulus through dendrites, causing electrical potential in a cell, traveling down the acon to terminal buttons
chemical substances that- when cell is stimulated- fire electrically between other cells, from the "terminal buttons" across the gap between neurons. The gap is called "synaptic gap or synapse"
Freudian Psychoanalysis ID
is the energy to run the psyche (mind)
Freudian Psychoanalysis Pleasure Principle
the urge for immediate satisfaction of urges for food, water, elimination, and sex. This is the biological energy, called libido, which concerts into psychic energy
Freudian Psychoanalysis EGO
conscious part of the psyche (develops in the second 6 months of life) the part of personality that deals with reality regulates ID
Freudian Psychoanalysis Secondary Process
planning and decision making of the EGO
Freudian Psychoanalysis Reality Principle
the EGO's ability to mediate between demands of reality and the imediate gratification desired by the ID
Freudian Psychoanalysis SUPEREGO
the conscience/ethics part of the psyche or personality
the complex interplay of the personality forces posited by freud (ID, EGO, SUPEREGO)
(NOT Subconcious) factors that patients are aware of (i.e. repress) into a part of their psyche
defense mechanism
discomforts experienced by rise of anxiety -repression, projection, displacement, reaction, regression, rationalization, sublimination, denial-
pushing unacceptable thoughts and impulses into unconscious
attributing unacceptable desires and thoughts to external agents (it is not YOU who is misbehaving, it is others who do so towards you)
redirecting emotional responses from one person to another (cant scream at the boss or teacher, so you take it out on your wife or siblings at home)
reaction formation
convert one's feelings- like hate- into the opposite (hypocrisy)
retreat in behavior to an earlier pattern/age
inventing a reason for an unreasonable action/attitude
converting sexual or aggressive impulses into socially valued behaviors (ex: sports to act out agressiveness/hostility)
flat unacceptance of undesirable or unwanted impulse, beyond that of repression
jung (C.G.) & analytical psychology
blend of freudian and humanistic psychology deemphasized biological drives and posited the concept of self realization, state of fulfillment that occurs when a person balances and gives expression to all the positive and creative aspects of his/her personality
collective unconscious
the total information from the social history and experiences of mankind
Adler (A) individual psychology
focused on individual phenomenology the ability to overcome a sense of inferiority striving for superiority all people are tied to their society rational thinking sibling rivalries prevention of problems
Erikson (E) Psuchosocial or EGO psycholohy
maily concentrated on human development posited the 8 stages of human development, in each stage a crisis (dichotomy) to be resolbed his whole emphasis was on te merging/mixing of the psychoanalytic with the social (environmental) interaction that gives the bases/results of human development
psychoanalytical therapy
sessions that consist of verbal emissions from the patient with little if any input by analyst
operant (instrumental) conditioning (skinner)
eliciting desirable behavior by rewarding (reinforcing) its occurrence, to assure repetition. Thus this is behavior that operates on the environment
sucessive approximantion
learning attained by performing step-by-step various behaviors and receiving reinforcement each time, until a full learning of a performance is learned
cognative behavior therapy
attempting to change the THINKING habits of a patient and influencing their emotions and thus their behavior
Bandura's "social learning theory"
learning can occur "vicariously" (through observing others behave a certain way) and one learns by watching models perform behaviors and judging those desirable, putting them into memory and recall them and perform them when occasion arises
belief that one can acheive desired goals by the expectation of having the ability (and MEMORY of past observation) to perform that what is needed to reach the goal
constitutional predisposition towards illness and/or any characteristic of a person that increases his/her chance of developing a disorder

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