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Day 1 Full Biology 30 Review


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What are the three main types of neurons?
Interneuron (association neuron)
Which neuron first responds to external stimuli?
Sensory Neuron.
Which neuron carries an impulse to a muscle or gland?
Motor Neuron.
What part of a neuron carries impulses toward the cell boy?
The dendrite.
The membrane that enables PNS neurons to regrow is known as the
Schwann cells grow around axons to create a structure known as the
Myelin Sheath.
The type of impulse conduction along a myelinated axon is known as
Saltatory conduction.
The specific structures along an axon that increase the speed of an impulse are known as
Nodes of Ranvier
A common disease associated with the loss of myelin around brain and spinal neurons is
Multiple sclerosis.
The structure that protects the axon or dendrites of a neuron and prevents the loss of electrical flow is
the Myelin Sheath.
At rest, which ion is found in greatest concentration on the outside of a neuron?
Sodium or Na+
What is the specific internal charge of a resting neuron?
- 70 mV
A rapid reversal of charge moving through an axon is known as an ...
Action Potencial or a nervous impulse.
The consideration of all the neurotransmitters present in the synapse is known as ...
Summation or the summation effect .
Why is a reflex faster than a person's reaction time?
A reflex does not involve comprehension or the brain.
Give two ways acetylcholine is removed from the synapse after an action potential is started on the postsynaptic membrane.
1) Reabsorbed by the presynaptic membrane.
2) Broken down by cholinesterase.
What effect does the sympathetic nervous system have on the Liver?
It causes the Liver to secrete glucose into the blood.
Which ion must leave the axon during repolarization?
Potassium or K+
List the order of cells or steps involved in a reflex arc.
Stimulus -> Sensory Neuron -> Interneuron -> Motor Neuron -> Effector (muslce)
A neurotransmitter commonly used in the PNS to continue an impulse across a synapse would be
Give two ways Calcium is important to our health.
Helps maintain bone strength and allows the release of neurotransmitters into the synapse.
Our mood, sense of well being and our ability to feel connected to others is strongly influenced by this neurotransmitter.
What carries an impulse across the space (synapse) between neurons?
A neurotransmitter (ex acetylcholine)
The length of time a neruon takes to recover from an impulse and be able to send another impulse is known as the
refractory period.
When sodium is pumped out of the neuron to setup it's resting potencial, what ion is left behind and inside the cell that encourages a negative internal charge?
Chloride ion.
The minimum amount of stimulus a neuron must receive in order to start an action potential is known as the
Threshold stimuli.
Once an action potential is started it will continue down the entire length of the axon without additional stimuli. This property of action potentials is known as
Neurons will either conduct a full impulse or not conduct any impulse. This property of neurons is referred to as the
All-or-None theory.
Our brains can sense degrees of stimuli from the environment, despite the "all-or-none" nature of impulse transmission. Give two explanations for this
Different neurons in the area may have different threshold levels.
The frequency of response may change for a specific neuron.
Dopamine is associated with this pathway
Reward or Pain pathway.
A neurological disease that is characterized by a lack of dopamine in the brain is
Parkinson's Disease.
The sympathetic nervous system helps the body
prepare for stress, or generate the "fight or flight" response.
The para-sympathetic nervous system helps the body
calm down or recover from the "fight or flight" response.

Number 4 on the diagram is known as a
Node of Ranvier

Number 5 on the diagram shown helps the neuron by
Preventing electrical loss or short circuit of impulses.

Number 1 on the diagram refers to the neuron's

Neuron "A" would be an example of a
sensory neuron.

Neuron "B" would be an example of a
motor neuron.

Neuron "C" would be an example of a
interneuron or association neuron.

Why is it important to have structure "9" in an axon terminal?
To provide energy. Sturcture "9" is a mitochondria.

Structure "10" is known as a
synaptic vessicle. It contains neurotransmitters.

Molecule "11" could be many different substances. Some common examples would include:

If substance "11" is acetyocholine, it's presence in the synapse at significant levels will trigger an in rush of this ion.
Sodium or Na+

If the presynaptic neuron shown is a sensory neruon, then the postsynaptic neuron must be an
interneuron or association neuron.

The neuron labled "c" must be
an interneuron.

This diagram represents a simple neuron pathway known as a
reflex arc.

The substance that would carry an impulse between neuron "b" and neuron "c" would be
acetylcholine. Or a neurotransmitter.

The support or glial cell labeled "e" is known as a
Schwann cell.

The structure labeled "g" would be
an end plate, or synaptic knob, or an axon terminal.

Sodium ions are rushing in at the area labeled
2 (depolarization)

repolarization is labeled
3 (potassium ions are rushing out)

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